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The 42 full papers and the 11 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections: theories and algorithms for blockchain, performance optimization of blockchain, blockchain security and privacy, blockchain and cloud computing, blockchain and internet of things, blockchain and mobile edge computing, blockchain and smart contracts, blockchain and data mining, blockchain services and applications, trustworthy system development.

Zibin Zheng. Hong-Ning Dai. Xiaodong Fu. Benhui Chen. Book Title : Blockchain and Trustworthy Systems. Publisher : Springer Singapore. Series ISSN : Edition Number : 1. Alpha chips are still dogged by nagging questions about the num- ber of native applications avail- able for the platform, although Digital and its partners have done much to improve this situation since the days of the Nevertheless, there are some holes.

For example, Microsoft currently has native Alpha versions of Excel 97 and Word 97, but none of any other applications in its Office family. These alter- native points of access include locales other than home, school, or the office- such as museums, libraries, retail out- fits including malls and cyber cafes , recreational facilities, churches, hos- pitals, and community centers.

In 1 , 1. Bauch be- lieves that this will change with the con- tinued evolution of Windows NT. By the first half of , Digital will be ready to release a new CPU, the In the past, Digital has simplified the CPU core while gunning for the highest speed. The new , which features a complex, out-of-order CPU core, will process up to 80 instructions at once. It has a bandwidth several times higher than that of previous chips, channeling up to 5. The new will start life at MHz, still far ahead of any com- petitors in terms of speed.

Digital is trying to emulate the success of x86 manufacturers in building a base of OEM customers by making the tech- nology more readily available. I would be thrilled if they did. The interface would probably debut in Cyrix, AMD, and Centaur agree that Socket 7 will remain popular at least through , and possibly beyond. The headaches. The heartburn. The half-eaten lunches. Running a network isn’t easy. Especially when you’re the one doing the running.

At Compaq, we think it’s time that changed. Introducing the new Compaq Deskpro line. The Deskpro , and , all with improved Intelligent Manageability, offer you what you want most: control. Control over installation, configuration and asset management, all from a single, convenient location. Control over problems before they happen, saving critical data.

Control over administrative, life- time and support costs — keeping total cost of ownership low. And control over your time. So you can focus on the future, instead of repairing the past. The Deskpro N, one of our network-ready models, gives you even better control over structured work environments. Because it has no removable media drives and requires less space, it’s the ultimate choice in manageable computing.

You’ll receive Compaq quality, Compaq innovation and Compaq reliability at new aggressive prices, more aggressive than you’ve ever seen from Compaq. For more information about the Deskpro series, visit us at www.

Intel plans to intro- duce the Deschutes version of the Pen- tium II in mid Deschutes will be the first Pentium II chip fabricated on a 0. Slot 2 is a higher-performance version of Slot 1 that will run at a bus frequency of at least MHz and support larger single-edge contact SEC cartridges. These cartridges have room for bigger L2 caches. Intel is aiming Slot 2 at higher- end desktops and servers, leaving Slot 1 for mainstream systems.

Vendors would have to either create two versions of every product or choose sides. The result could be two competing PC architectures: Intel and non-Intel. It will be built on a 0. This chip, which will sit in a Slot 1 cartridge, will tar- get desktops, entry-level servers, and workstations. Around midyear, the compa- ny will introduce Pentium II pro- cessors that plug into Slot 2, which is intended for servers and accommodates a larger Level 2 cache that runs at the core clock speed of the processor.

Slot 2 configurations will support a MHz system bus next year, and servers based on it will scale to a minimum of four processors, company officials said. Intel will introduce Pentium II processors for portables during the first half of 1 These chips will be available in either a mod- ified cartridge design similar to slots but significantly smaller or the Mobile Module.

You can see how it rates against other systems on page 1 8. In our suite of cross-platform Photoshop tests, the Power Mac beats a MHz Pentium II decisively in the arbitrary rotate test, but the other scores are closer.

But thanks to a separate L2 cache bus and a small die size, the G3 se- ries promises better performance at a low- er price: A system from Power Comput- ing with a -MHz G3 scored 9. But what else was there to do? His domain name was gone. Sometime Saturday afternoon, August 2, WebCom, a Web and e-mail ser- vice that hosts Gaughan’s intranet site, had its domain name removed from the root servers of Network Solutions, which manages the domain-registration system for the Internet.

The source of the problem was a bug in a script that Network Solutions was running over the weekend while cleaning its databases, erroneously deactivating WebCom’s domain. In the aftermath of the crash, WebCom, which is based in California, was unable to contact Herndon, Virginia-based Network Solutions to find out what had happened.

Many ana- lysts say the WebCom incident is yet another in a string of snafus that highlight the Internet’s immaturity for hosting bet-your-business applications. Network Solutions claims to have a direct line for contacting system administrators at any time, but it’s not a general hot line, and company officials asked BYTE not to publish the number for the general public.

Leavitt was unaware of this number at the time that his Web site went down. In the wake of the domain-name crisis, WebCom officials were able to find a WebCom user, Gaughan, who lived in the same area as Network Solutions’ facilities.

At press time, Mitsubishi, Ricoh, and Ya- maha had all signed on to the renegade standard, providing momentum for this proposal. Several other major players, such as NEC and Toshiba, have not announced any intent to support this new standard.

Glinka admits that the rival standard provides for slightly more storage space at first, but he says the DVD Consortium has announced plans to provide up to 50 GB of storage space over the next 10 years. Why the split? Sources who wish to re- main unnamed said there are several pos- sible reasons. One is that Sony was un- happy with its cut of the royalties from the original standard. Others say Philips and HP wish to cast confusion in the mar- ket so that more people will buy their multisession recordable CD drives.

Unless you must have the first writable DVD product, it may be better to wait and see for sure. But vendors such as Applix, which al- ready sells Java-based business appli- cations, continue to forge ahead with new versions.

Corel, after rethinking its strategy, says it will release a new Java suite next year, and Lotus plans to re- lease Java productivity applets in the fourth quarter of this year. Corel originally announced plans for a Java version of its full-function Office suite of applications, but the company has since scrapped that approach. Adding all those would have resulted in a chub- by — not a thin — client. While Corel and Lotus work on their projects, Applix says it will continue to improve its existing Anyware Office and Enterprise Anyware which consists of sales, service, and help-desk modules.

However, as vendors go forward, they will have to master the art of bro- ken field running as the Java platform evolves. L Percentage of Systems Powered by Alpha 3. Build the Internet into smart phones, set-top boxes, photocopiers, kiosks, printers, PLCs Better yet, build it on time. The IAT”, used to create this demo, comes with everything you need, from rapid application development tools to Internet apps to source code.

Build a custom browser in days, not months! And talk about performance. Believe it! Download your free 1. Ail other trademarks and registered trademarks belong to their respective owners.

Circle 1 30 on Inquiry Card. The Enterprise is a robust midrange server. A fast system bus lets multiple proces- sors access memory faster, providing more efficient symmetrical multiprocessing. And Sun has taken care of third-party application software costs, which were a huge differentiator be- tween midrange Unix servers and Wintel servers. Sun has negotiated a new work- group-server pricing level for one- to four-way Sun Enterprise servers that levels the pricing differentiation for applications such as Ora- cle and Sybase.

Introduced recently, SunLink, a module of Solaris for Intranets, supports file systems for Windows 3. Print-sharing and file- sharing services for these clients are sup- ported by SunLink. SunLink is included with the Enterprise server, but no additional client software is needed. The Enterprise has many, but not all, of the Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability RAS features found in the Enterprise , , , and servers.

It comes standard with two and an optional third W power supplies, which are hot-swappable. If a CPU or memory module fails, the detects the failure auto- matically, takes the failed module off-line, and continues to process. But the system does not support on-line reconfiguration as other Sun servers do , where a failed processor or memory module can be replaced, or a new module added, and the system can reconfig- ure itself without being taken down.

Short of supporting NT, Sun has done al- most everything it can do to take on Wintel workgroup servers: It has eliminated price as a barrier and brings most of its enterprise ca- pabilities to the workgroup server. For mixed Unix and NT environments, Data- pro recommends that customers evaluate both Sun and Compaq and other Wintel plat- forms for workgroup computing.

Peter Lowber is a principal analyst for Datapro, a division of the Gartner Group. And Samsung’s vast global network of service centers ensures prompt assistance to keep you on schedule and performing at your best. Wherever in the world you do business, Samsung will be there, dedicated to your success.

Samsung HDD – Success depends on the right choice. Circle 1 36 on Inquiry Card. As eight-way servers for NT become a reality with NT 5. The is only a four- way server; for more scalability, Sun us- ers are forced into a much-higher price bracket. This is not an issue yet, but it may become one as these new standards materialize dur- ing Now, for the first time since 1 , Knuth is updating his lifework. He does not pre- scribe to the latest trend in programming languages.

Typically, Knuth first describes an algorithm or structure in general terms. He sets up the discussion with tables, flow diagrams, and other graphical aids. For instance, when opening the section on informa- tion structures, Knuth covers important terms and notations by describing a simple algorithm involving playing cards.

He then displays the actual cards next to a computer representation of the data records. Next, a figure shows record structures along with arrows that depict how the records are linked.

An algorithm for turning over a new card is presented step- by-step, accompanied in parentheses by relevant comments, as shown below. This puts the appropriate link into the new card node. This keeps TOP pointing to the top of the pile. This meticulous, thorough methodology proceeds from a general descrip- tion to a specific implementation, so you understand the flow logic, the data architecture, and the practical implications of the algorithm.

The bulk of the first volume covers infor- mation structures, including stacks, queues, binary trees, and dynamic storage. In some cases, Knuth concedes that a subject is evolving too rapidly to pin down. This is no casual read. But it is the essential reference for the serious computer scientist and anyone who wants to understand computer structures and programmatic flows. If you want a deep understanding of buffer-alloca- tion or garbage-collection routines, along with alternative approaches and efficiency analysis, consult your Knuths.

You can reach him at sdiehl nebs. Unicenter TNG gives you a single point of control for your complex and heterogeneous global network. Its dynamic auto-discovery ensures that your network configuration is current. The Real World Interface ‘ allows for better visualization of your network. And third-party tools such as element managers integrate with Unicenter TNG through its open and extensible architecture. Unicenter TNG is an integrated solution for end-to-end enterprise management.

With support for every major hardware platform The Real World Interface uses virtual reality to create a 3-D environ- ment that represents objects just as they appear in the real world.

Users who know that working smarter always beats working harder. For More information Call 1 – – OrVlsliwww. Lower number indicates greater price value. For more in-depth information, refer to www. Dell’s expertise in industry-standard technology gives the Dell Workstation a price performance edge over selected models from significant competitors. This chart reflects a 3D-graphics-oriented benchmark modeling an environment similar to mechanical CAD.

Fasten your seatbelts. And there is, thanks to all the high-performance industry-standard components inside. Like the 3D, financial modeling, CAD, authoring and animation video cards and even enhanced audio capabilities such as integrated bit SoundBlaster Compatible Sound.

But the real rush comes from the fact that your Dell Workstation can be custom-built for you from the ground up. With system engineering, 24×7 technical hardware telephone and online support, consulting, global integration, leasing, and asset management.

The Dell Workstation comes with everything you’d expect in a workstation. Except, of course, the usual price tag. A 0n-site service provided by third-party providers and may not be available in certain remote areas.

Information value correct as of print date. Five years ago, the hot topic was penny-pinch- ing PCs. Years ago in BYTE Remember the movie Tron , about a pro- grammer who finds himself trapped inside the electronic world of computers? Today its special effects seem tame, but at the time people were wowed. We wrote about how it was made and how Tron presaged a new era in computer-generated imagery. And Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak wrote an arti- cle about howto extend the proces- sor using software.

BYTE: You ‘ve studied usability and user- interface design issues since Is the number of people who design products with which others interact increasing? Nielsen: Oh, yes, more people are al- ready designing their own user interfaces, in the sense that a Web page is a user in- terface.

The scope of user-interface de- sign has expanded dramatically because of the Web. It used to be a small set of pro- fessionals doing it. My analogy is that designing a Web page is quite similar to designing a dialog box. These options include what users can click on, what they can do, and what the stream of their at- tention is when looking over the layout.

Designing a Web site is similar to de- signing an application. You have to wor- ry about not j ust those detailed issues, but also about the navigational flow.

How us- ers move between all those different op- tions is one example of what comes into site design as opposed to page design. We now have millions of people doing this, whereas, a few years ago, we had a few thousand people doing this. You can get more on this topic from http:H www. The sys- tem should communicate in words, phrases, and con- cepts that are familiar to the user. Give users control and freedom. Always have a cancel button available.

Make objects, actions, and options intuitive. There should be more than one way to ac- complish a task. Errors are a prima- ry opportunity to teach us- ers through informative error messages. From surfing the Web and sending e-mail to playing the latest multimedia games and managing the family finances – the LEO Oasis provides the supreme home infotainment center.

First International Computer, Inc. L L. Your eyes may be the ultimate computer commander. It works without inputting traditional explicit commands.

Called Blick the German word for gaze , the system includes an autostereo- scopic display that represents objects in 3-D without the user wearing either a head-mounted display or shutter glasses. The next generation of user interfaces may be in 3-D and controlled by your gaze. For each position, the sys- tem calculates on the fly both stereo- scopic views and projects them together to create the illusion of a 3-D space. Im- ages seem to jump out at you. Thus, the graphics subsystem often works with anticipated head positions.

The system then simulates the limited depth of focus of the human visual system and makes currently fixated objects on the screen stand out against the environment. Thus, the user can interact with 3-D objects by just looking at them. If you focus on an object for more than 0. Of course, the sys- tem takes time to get used to. The new driving technology has received patents in the U.

Hu ex- plains that in conventional active-matrix TFT LCDs, higher resolution has to be addressed by more individual pixels, resulting in a greater number of driver ICs. For a Japan-made 5.

It will let digital camera users obtain all the detailed images for back-panel review and replay. Compared with the currently used tape-automated-bonding TAB tech- nology, the COG process cost is lower and the process yield rate and reliability are higher. Almost all of the next generation of digital cameras will include LCDs,” Hu says. The only way around this hassle is a multilingual search engine that automatically translates information into a language that you understand.

According to Kutnick, the engine will also rank translated documents and build content clusters that make it easier for you to narrow down your interests. If you want an exact translation of your find- ings, you will be able to submit documents via e-mail. The company plans to offer several lev- els of services e. The services will initially be targeted at certain business domains such as law and medicine. A prototype service will be launched by the end of the year. The Sensaura 3-D audio core digitally emulates human hearing.

The Sensaura- compatible chips manufactured by Yam- aha and C-Media are meant for PC-related multimedia applications such as computer games and virtual-reality applications.

They can make any monophonic or mul- tichannel source sound like a spherical 3-D sound field by virtually positioning sound sources all around the listener, including above, below, and behind. Secondary pro- cessing provides sound effects, such as reverberation and Doppler shifting. The system also includes cross-talk cancellation that is critical for loudspeaker playback. Then distribute it to multiple access points across multiple platforms.

With one keystroke. Led by FireWall-1, the market share leader, we offer a comprehensive suite of applications to meet all your enterprise security needs — access control, VPNs, authentication, network address translation, and content security. You can even integrate third party functions, like router access list management, for central control. Based on Check Point’s patented Stateful Inspection technology, FireWall-1 delivers an unprecedented balance between security and performance.

Find out how to deliver enterprise security with just one click — download your free FireWall-1 demo at www. By Stella Kao he batt le over who gets to bring broadband to the home is heating up. To date, most Internet service providers ISPs still operate at Rout- ing pathways often limit throughput even further. These bottlenecks are worse during times of heavy traffic. Throughput can fall well be- low what current analog mo- dems can handle.

Thus, the demand for speedy broad- band technologies is on the rise. Most competing high-speed offerings are currently in var- ious stages of research, test- ing, and deployment. None of them are as mature or as widespread as ISDN. Even in the U. You can use either or both B chan- nels for LAN-to-LAN access, Internet access, videoconferencing, or other applications that demand higher bandwidth than ana- log modems can provide.

To achieve an aggregate Kbps throughput, all ISDN mo- dems now support the multilink PPP channel-bonding technol- ogy, which lets two connecting units negotiate and combine two or multiple channels to serve as one larger pipe with expanded bandwidth. In addition, multilink PPP ensures interoperability with all carrier equipment. Therefore, ISDN users could speak on one voice channel, send files into a cor- porate office on another, and get low-bandwidth data such as e-mail on a third.

A Dead Technology? Users complained that it was difficult to install, that the phone companies took forever to setup the lines, that technical support was inefficient, and that it was too expensive. In addi- tion, he says that the shared networks operate at a speed as fast as 1 0 Mbps.

ISDN is the best solution because users are able to manage phone calls, e-mail, and video- conferencing with one technology, Hsieh adds. In Japan, it has the strong backing of the government. There will be nearly 1 million ISDN lines installed there by the end of the year. Many modem and networking-prod- uct manufacturers in Taiwan are applying their mass-production strengths to vol- ume ISDN service providers who need ter- minal adapters TAs and infrastructure equipment such as routers, bridges, and switches.

These internal cards sport common features as they all use solutions provided by chip makers. Cutthroat competition among ISDN vendors has largely brought card prices down, resulting in decreasing profit margins. While they ear- mark internal cards for the European market, stand-alone models are in large demand in Japan.

Finding ways to make ISDN TAs more suitable for use with portable computers, active, self-powered adapter cards that have their own processors, memory, and drivers are currently under devel- opment. This will allow it to operate without host PC resources.

Some of these models also come with bundled applications, such as Internet, videotext, file transfer, fax, voice, mail, and terminal-emulation software.

For the high-end corporate segment, Taiwanese manufacturers are making more routers that enable multiple users on a LAN to access the Internet at high speeds. ISDN routers, like other routers, let users build anything from complex switched-circuit networks to simple peer- to-peer dial-in connections. Users can also fine-tune their line usage, which can reduce ISDN fees. You need the right voice recorder company.

No problem. Racal Recorders has the all-round expertise you need on your side. Almost 50 years of experience and innovation in the field of voice recorders. The understanding of the changing market. A wide range of high quality recorders with industry standard CTI and programming interfaces for system integration. And experienced project and engineering implementation teams. Ail backed by the long -term support of a unique world- wide network of distributors.

Ghoose Racal Recorders. E-mail: recorders a racalrec. International Broadband Choices Ethernet hub. The Prestige , from ZyXel Commu- nications, for instance, has an option of a five-port external Ethernet hub. Many vendors support both types, but a few support only one. With this feature, each remote work- station has its own local IP addresses, but all outbound packets from the remote workstations share a single IP address, which is attached at the router.

Inbound packets destined for those machines are sorted by the router and readdressed to those specific remote workstations. Be- cause dial-in ISPs typically charge by the IP address, this can save on operating costs and effort.

The perfor- mance benefits are clear: The technology supports typical downstream rates of 1. That makes it potentially more than 10 times speedier than ISDN without the requirement to install an expensive new medium. But while a new infrastructure is not required, high equipment cost is keeping ADSL from significant growth in the con- sumer market for the time being.

Based on the synchronous integration of two Kbps modems, a 1 1 2- Kbps dual-line modem communicates over two standard analog telephone lines, provid- ing aggregated, uncompressed download speeds of up to 1 1 2 Kbps-nearly 3. Using the combined bandwidth of two tele- phone lines, though, the technology allows you to drop one line as needed for voice calls or faxes.

Proposed and promoted by Texas Instruments and U. Robotics, the 1 1 2-Kbps analog modems that a number of Taiwan com- panies make should be in stores in the U. Cable modems are internal devices that connect PCs to cable networks. Many solutions are being developed, with speeds ranging from 64 Kbps to 30 Mbps. The mo- dem, featuring a downstream speed of 8 Mbps, will be available in the first half of 1 from Toshiba.

Highly scalable, ATM pro- vides an ideal upgrade path for supporting higher-bandwidth applications and enables the simultaneous transfer of voice, data, and video traffic at very high speeds, and supports both LANs and WANs. These are interim technologies that were developed to get around the local-access bot- tleneck using the installed base of copper wiring from phone and cable companies.

The technology is frequently used to replace repeated T 1 service over distances as long as 1 2, feet. SDSL is full- duplex, so it provides speeds of up to 1.

The technology may be the preferred method for doing sophisticated real-time functions, such as conducting audio, data, and video communications, or remotely con- necting to a corporate LAN. Though VDSL promises an ultrahigh down- stream bandwidth over copper wire, some developers question the viability of a near- term market for VDSL, because it requires that afiber-to-the-curb switched digital-video infra- structure be in place. Because its transmission speed is rate-adaptive, based on the length and signal quality of an existing telephone line, RADSL is not optimized for only one loop, but dynamically optimizes to each loop for the greatest throughput available.

When it comes to the environment, the Essentia is tops. So, make a little effort. Essentia The Herald of Tomorrow’s Computer. Expand- able in a way not seen in any competitor products, the PRIMERGY family makes customized solutions possible for medium-sized and large-scale businesses alike.

All major telecom operators are doing trials in some areas. In the meantime, some Taiwan com- panies are offering high-bit-rate digital subscriber line HDSL systems. Providing the same fast data throughput in a sym- metric and full-duplex format, HDSL is now being considered as a viable data- access option for the mass market. As always, POTS occupies the low- est end of the bottom 4 kHz and is split off from the digital data by a passive low-pass filter, ensuring uninterrupted voice ser- vice even if the ADSL connection fails.

Both the downstream and full-duplex channels can carry more than one bearer channel. To take advantage of the technology, you need a special ADSL modem, and telecommunications operators must install special switches and equipment to provide service. Because most of the nec- essary switch upgrades are not in place, it will take some time to bring ADSL within reach of everyone. Foreseeing a rosy future for ADSL as the most widespread high-bandwidth solu- tion for connecting home computers to the Internet, modem manufacturers are revving up product development for the new ADSL technology.

The service between each site uses a lOBase-T Ethernet interface. Both are de- signed to modulate bits that are sent though the line. According to Chen, DMT is expected to become the industry standard in the future. The technology brings transmis- sion speeds closer to the theoretical lim- its allowed by ADSL, because it is more robust against difficult line conditions and impulse noise.

Another major benefit offered by DMT is support for interoper- ability between equipment from different vendors. Another advantage of DMT is that line coding divides available transmission bandwidth into independent sub- channels. Diamond Bar, CA, U. Reduced Cost Recent developments that are aimed at reducing the cost of the ADSL technol- ogy are mainly directed toward increas- ing highly integrated, low-cost, high-per- formance chip sets.

Nevertheless, Motorola is find- ing it difficult to increase its yield, accord- ing to sources in the alliance, making the alliance turn to alternative solutions from Alcatel or SGS-Thomson. The move will help hardware makers to substantially reduce their costs.

You can reach her at meou e-mail. As a UNIX workstation or server user, you appreciate the value of high performance. An excellent method, but a little slow for today’s high performance tape drives. And at a fraction of the cost of comparable backup software, NightShift UNIX makes the ideal solution for UNIX users who need faster, economical backup, without the frustration of implementing new backup procedures.

So set the night shift to work for you! Transitional Technology Int. Passage Series Routers feature: Networks that work! As easy as connecting to the Internet via modem. MultiLink PPP – by load sharing or overflow control for increased bandwidth on demand. La Palma, Anaheim, CA. By Derek Jones I oftware testing may be one of the least attractive of all software-development activities.

Typically, it costs 10 times more to fix a bug at any stage of the development cycle than it does to fix it during the previous stage. But the cost of formal, comprehensive testing procedures can be prohibitive and often delays the time to market unacceptably. Automated software-test- ing tools can be a cost-effi- cient solution for developers looking to enhance the qual- ity of their products.

In ad- dition, as application de- velopment becomes more intricate — especially with the growing complexity cre- ated by the move to applets and components — tools that systematically check source code or detect unexpected behavior at run time are be- coming increasingly impor- tant for developers. Software testing involves more than just debugging code. It encompasses the validation and verification of software throughout the whole development process.

Static vs. Dynamic Testing So-called static analysis tools analyze the source code of an application. Static checks deal with such details as un- reachable code, the misuse of pointers, undeclared vari- ables, and variables used before initialization.

The information gathered by these techniques serves two main purposes: to help developers understand the source code e. Commercially available tools either support a variety of pro- gramming languages or are specifically designed for a certain language.

Generic tools that support multiple languages, on the other hand, are more ap- propriate for working with a variety of programming languages. PC-Lint offers an entry- level method of quality as- surance on PCs. They offer comprehensive customiza- tion features and can also generate metric information as well as graphical repre- sentations of code.

Their big strengths include checking for bad pointers and memory leak- age. In addition, they allow you to test the concurrent operation and integration of mod- ules, check operation after a bug has been fixed, and perform stress tests. There are two approaches to dynamic testing. One class of tools includes a compiler and uses source-code information to flag problems as it compiles. Another type of dynamic-testing tool checks the run-time behavior of executables. Of course, a tool that checks source code has access to more information and can therefore do checks that are more thor- w.

The disadvantage of this approach is that it requires access to source code, which may not be avail- able if you use third-party libraries.

Instead, it treats con- tiguously allocated storage as a single memory item. Is More Testing Needed? How do you know how much testing has been done and how much more is still needed? There are a couple of techniques for measuring test coverage. Statement coverage counts how many of the total statements in the application are execut- ed. An interesting side effect of percent statement coverage is that it helps pro- grammers find statements that can never be executed.

This is because defining test procedures to execute a given statement makes developers look at an application Testing Java Applications W hen granularity [of components] be- comes so tiny [as when testing Java applications], the problems of integration testing are enormous,” says Jeffrey Voas, chief scientist with Reliable Software Tech- nologies Sterling, VA , a software research and consulting company.

Testing Java applications is difficult be- cause developers are forced to test applets on each configuration that they plan to sup- port. This includes the different implementa- tions of Java virtual machines VMs -brows- ers as well as compilers. SunTest, a subsidiary of Sun Microsystems, has introduced a suite of tools that helps developers not only gain certification but also perform overall quality testing.

JavaPureCheck checks that class files are indeed portable. It measures specified classes against a rule base. These errors and explanations are kept in a database that creates reports. You can download this tool for free from the SunTest Web site. JavaSpin tests Java applications at run time. JavaScope is a coverage-analysis tool that includes method, branch, logical, and relational coverage i. The current release does not support statement coverage, however.



Windows 10 1703 download iso italy vsu email.232 comments

Hu ex- plains that in conventional active-matrix TFT LCDs, higher resolution has to be addressed by more individual pixels, resulting in a greater number of driver ICs. For example, sound is a real-time opera- tion, and any timing perturbation results in clicks or pops as digitally sampled data fails to arrive on time. The Enterprise is a robust midrange server. Also, clearly, appreciative for your perspiration! More rapid results are achieved by setting one of these bits in a passing BRM cell. The sys- tem should communicate in words, phrases, and con- cepts that are familiar to the user.❿

Blockchain and Trustworthy Systems – Windows 10 1703 download iso italy vsu email

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