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The influenza pandemiccommonly known by the pdf expert 5 vs 6 free Spanish flu or as the Great Influenza epidemicwas an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 influenza A virus.

Two years later, nearly a third of the global population, or an estimated million people, had been infected in four successive waves. Estimates of deaths range from 17 million to 50 million, and possibly as high as million, making it the second deadliest pandemic in human history after the Black Death bubonic plague of — The pandemic broke expetr near the end of World War Iwhen wartime censors suppressed bad news in the belligerent countries to maintain moralebut newspapers pdf expert 5 vs 6 free reported the outbreak in neutral Spaincreating a false impression of Spain as the epicenter and leading to the “Spanish flu” misnomer.

Most influenza outbreaks disproportionately kill the young and old, with a higher survival rate in-between, but по этой ссылке pandemic had unusually high mortality for young adults.

The Spanish flu was the first of three flu pandemics caused by H1N1 influenza A virus ; the most recent one was the swine flu pandemic. This pandemic was known by many different names—some old, some new—depending on place, time, and context. The etymology of alternative names historicises the scourge and fre effects on people who would only ссылка на страницу years later that invisible viruses caused influenza.

Clinical indications in common with the pandemic included rapid symptom progression to a “dusky” heliotrope cyanosis of the face. This characteristic blue-violet cyanosis in expiring patients led to the name ‘purple death’. The Aldershot ;df later wrote in The Перейти“the influenza pneumococcal purulent bronchitis we and others described in and is fundamentally the same condition as the influenza of this present pandemic.

In’ epidemic influenza ‘ Italian : influenzainfluence[30] also known at the time as ‘the grip’ French : la grippegrasp[31] appeared in Kansas in the U. Many alternative names are exonyms in the practice of making new infectious diseases seem foreign. Outside Spain, the disease was soon misnamed ‘Spanish influenza’. The outbreak did not originate in Spain see below[50] but reporting did, due to wartime censorship in belligerent nations.

Spain was a neutral country unconcerned with appearances of combat readinessand without a wartime propaganda machine to prop up morale ; [51] [52] so its newspapers pdf expert 5 vs 6 free reported epidemic effects, exprt King Alfonso XIII ‘s illness, pdf expert 5 vs 6 free Spain the apparent locus of the epidemic. In an October “Madrid Letter” to the Journal of the American Medical Associationa Spanish official protested, “we were surprised to learn that the disease was making ravages in other countries, and that people there were calling it the ‘Spanish grip’.

And wherefore Spanish? French press initially used ‘American flu’, but adopted ‘Spanish flu’ in lieu of antagonizing an ally. Other pdf expert 5 vs 6 free derived from geopolitical borders and social boundaries. In Poland it was the ‘ Bolshevik disease’, [60] [65] while the Bolsheviks referred to it as the ‘ Kirghiz disease’. World Health Organization ‘best practices’ first published in now aim to prevent social stigma by no longer pdf expert 5 vs 6 free culturally significant names with new diseases, listing “Spanish flu” under “examples to be avoided”.

Some language endonyms did not name specific regions or groups of people. Examples specific to this pandemic include: Northern Ndebele : ‘Malibuzwe’ let enquiries be made concerning itSwahili : ‘Ugonjo huo kichwa na kukohoa na kiuno’ the disease of pdf expert 5 vs 6 free and coughing and spine[74] Yao : ‘chipindupindu’ disease from seeking to make a profit in wartimeOtjiherero : ‘kaapitohanga’ disease which passes through like a bullet[75] and Persian : ‘nakhushi-yi bad’ disease of the wind.

This outbreak was also commonly known as the ‘great influenza epidemic’, [78] [79] after the ‘great war’, a common name for World War I before World War II. A children’s song vd the —90 flu pandemic [81] was shortened bs adapted into a skipping-rope rhyme popular in The pandemic is conventionally marked as having begun on 4 March with the recording of the case of Albert Gitchell, pdf expert 5 vs 6 free army cook at Camp Funston in KansasUnited States, despite there по этой ссылке been cases before him.

As the U. Army camps and Europe, becoming an epidemic in the MidwestTree Coastand French ports by Apriland reaching the Western Front by the middle of the month. The first wave of the pdf expert 5 vs 6 free lasted from the first quarter of and was relatively mild. However, the first wave caused a significant disruption in the military operations of World War Iwith three-quarters of French troops, half the British forces, and overGerman soldiers sick.

The second wave began in the second half of Augustprobably продолжить to Boston and FreetownSierra Leoneby ships from Brestwhere it had likely arrived with American troops or French recruits for naval training.

From Europe, the second wave swept through Russia in a southwest—northeast diagonal front, well as being brought to Arkhangelsk by the North Russia interventionand ecpert spread throughout Asia following the Russian Civil War and the Trans-Siberian railwayreaching Iran where it spread through the holy city of Mashhadand then later India in September, as well as China and Japan in October.

The second wave of the pandemic was much more deadly than the first. The first wave had resembled typical pdf expert 5 vs 6 free epidemics; those most at risk were the sick and elderly, while younger, healthier people recovered easily.

October was the month with the highest fatality rate of the whole pandemic. In Januarya third wave of the flu hit Australia, where it killed around expdrt, people following the lifting of a maritime quarantine, and then spread quickly through Europe and the United States, where it lingered through the spring and until June In pdf expert 5 vs 6 free northern hemisphere, fears of expeft “recurrence” of the flu grew as fall approached.

Experts cited the history of past flu epidemics, such as that of —, to predict that such a recurrence a year later was not unlikely, [] [] though not all agreed. Surgeon General Rupert Blue said a return of the flu later in the year would “probably, but by no means certainly,” occur. In the United States, there were “almost continuously isolated or solitary cases” of flu throughout the spring and summer months. It became apparent within days of the start of Chicago’s explosive growth in cases that the flu was spreading in the city at an even faster rate than in winterthough fewer were dying.

Amidst the spreading outbreak, Surgeon General Blue warned the public not to get “panicky” over the flu. Senator William H. Phelan of California sought to have the bill recommitted to the Committee on Public Health until there was an investigation into what previous flu funding had produced, but this failed. Ultimately, a letter from Carter GlassSecretary of the Treasuryregarding the outbreaks occurring in large cities and the threat they posed to the rest of pdf expert 5 vs 6 free country persuaded many senators to vote for the package.

The fourth wave in the United States subsided as swiftly as it had appeared, reaching a pdf expert 5 vs 6 free in early February. Mortality Statistics would детальнее на этой странице note; according to data at this time, the epidemic gree in one third as many deaths as the — experience. Louis were hit particularly hard, with death rates higher than all of In winter and springa fourth expeet also occurred in various areas including Switzerland, Scandinavia, [] Free, [] and some South American islands.

Bythe virus that caused the pandemic evolved to become much less deadly and subsequently caused only ordinary seasonal flu. Despite expedt name, historical and epidemiological data cannot identify the geographic origin of the Spanish flu. The first confirmed cases originated in the United States. Historian Alfred W.

Crosby stated in that the flu originated in Kansas[] and author John M. Barry described a January outbreak in Haskell County, Kansasas the point of origin in his article. A study of tissue slides and medical reports led by evolutionary biology professor Michael Worobey found evidence against the disease originating from Kansas, as those по этому адресу were milder and had fewer deaths compared to the infections in New York City in the same period.

The study did find evidence through phylogenetic analyses that the virus likely had a North American origin, though it was not conclusive. In addition, the haemagglutinin glycoproteins of the virus suggest that it originated long before feee, and other studies suggest that the reassortment of the H1N1 virus likely occurred in or around The hospital treated thousands of victims of poison gas attacks, and other casualties of war, andsoldiers passed through the camp every day.

It also was home to a piggeryand poultry was regularly brought in from surrounding villages to feed the camp. Oxford and his team postulated that a precursor virus, harbored in birds, mutated and then migrated to pigs kept near the front.

A report published in in the Journal of the Chinese Medical Association found evidence that the virus had been circulating in the European armies for months and possibly years before the pandemic. A pdf expert 5 vs 6 free in Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses found that Spanish flu mortality simultaneously peaked within the two-month period of October and November in all fourteen European countries analyzed, which is inconsistent with the pattern that researchers would expect if the virus had originated somewhere pdf expert 5 vs 6 free Europe and then spread outwards.

InClaude Hannoun, the leading expert on the Spanish flu at the Pasteur Instituteasserted the precursor virus was likely to have come from China and then mutated in the United States near Boston and from there spread to BrestFranceEurope’s battlefields, the rest of Europe, and the rest of the world, with Allied soldiers and sailors as the main disseminators.

Humphries, of the Memorial University of Newfoundland in St. John’sbased his conclusions on newly unearthed records. He found archival evidence that a respiratory illness that struck northern China where the laborers came from in November was identified a year later by Chinese health officials as identical to the Spanish flu. China was one of the few regions of the world seemingly less affected by the Spanish eexpert pandemic, where several studies have documented a comparatively mild flu season in This has led to speculation that the Spanish flu pandemic pdf expert 5 vs 6 free in China, [] [] as ссылка на подробности lower rates of flu mortality may be explained by the Chinese population’s previously acquired immunity to the flu virus.

A vree published in in the Journal of the Chinese Medical Association found no evidence that the virus was imported to Europe via Нажмите сюда and Southeast Asian soldiers and workers and instead found evidence of its ссылка на страницу in Europe before the pandemic.

The basic reproduction number of the virus was between 2 and 3. The war may also have reduced people’s resistance to the virus. Some speculate the soldiers’ immune systems were bs by malnourishment, as well as expedt stresses of combat and chemical attacks, increasing their susceptibility.

Modern transportation systems made it easier for soldiers, читать больше, and civilian travelers to spread the disease. The severity of the second wave has been attributed to the circumstances of the First World War.

Those who get very ill stay home, and those mildly ill continue with their lives, preferentially pdf expert 5 vs 6 free the mild strain. In the trenches, natural selection was reversed. Soldiers with a mild strain stayed where they were, while the severely ill were sent on crowded trains to crowded field hospitals, spreading the deadlier pdf expert 5 vs 6 free. The second wave began, and the pdf expert 5 vs 6 free quickly spread around the world again.

Consequently, during modern pandemics, health officials look for deadlier strains of a virus when it reaches places with social upheaval. This was узнать больше здесь dramatically illustrated in Copenhagenwhich escaped with a combined mortality rate of just 0. After the lethal second wave struck in latenew cases dropped abruptly. In Philadelphia, for example, 4, people died in the week ending 16 October, but by 11 November, influenza had almost disappeared from the city.

One explanation for the rapid decline in the lethality of the pdf expert 5 vs 6 free is that doctors became more effective in the prevention and treatment of pneumonia that developed after the victims had contracted the virus. Such expeert of influenza is a common occurrence: there is a tendency for pathogenic viruses to become expertt lethal with time, as the hosts of more dangerous strains tend to die out.

The majority of the infected experienced only the typical flu symptoms of sore throat, headache, and fever, especially during the first wave. Bleeding from the ears and petechial hemorrhages in the skin also occurred”. The majority of deaths were from bacterial pneumonia[] [] [] a common secondary infection associated with influenza. This pneumonia was itself caused by common upper respiratory-tract bacteria, which were able to get into the fre via the damaged bronchial tubes of the victims.

The animals suffered rapidly progressive respiratory failure and death through a cytokine storm. The strong pdt reactions of young adults were postulated to have ravaged the body, whereas the weaker immune reactions of children and middle-aged adults resulted in fewer deaths among those groups. Because the virus that caused the disease was too small to be seen under a pdf expert 5 vs 6 free at the time, there were problems with correctly diagnosing it.

During the deadly second wave there were also fears that it was in fact plaguedengue feveror cholera. Studies have shown that the immune system of Spanish flu victims was weakened by adverse climate conditions which were particularly unseasonably cold and wet for extended periods of time during the duration of the pandemic.

This affected especially WWI troops exposed to incessant rains and lower-than-average temperatures for the duration of the conflict, and especially during the second wave of the pandemic. Ultra-high-resolution climate data combined with highly detailed mortality records analyzed at Harvard University and the Climate Change Institute at the University of Maine identified a severe climate anomaly that impacted Europe from towith several environmental indicators directly influencing the severity and spread of the Spanish flu pandemic.

Mortality pdf expert 5 vs 6 free follow closely the concurrent increase in precipitation читать полностью decrease in temperatures. While systems for alerting public health authorities of infectious spread expsrt exist inthey did not generally include influenza, leading to a delayed response.



Pdf expert 5 vs 6 free

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