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Views Downloads 32 File size 72MB. Digitized by Google Digitized windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos reading eagle Google SE c: PREFACE TROUGH the Greek language in its claaaical period has been, ever since ancient times, a field of almost constant research and study, 80 that the grammars and treatises written on the subject, if merely catalogued, would fill up many bulky rrading, an ‘historical’ grammar, tracing in a connected manner the life of the Windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos reading eagle language from claaaical antiquity to the present time, has not been written nor even seriously attempted as yet I.

The reasons are not far to seek. First, the origin and prehistoric stages of Greek are matters of vague specu. Next, the ao-ca1led ‘poat. Then the poat-Christian or Byzantine and mediaeval ages, far from meeting with any sympathetic interest on the part of classical students, have on the contrary at all times been branded with unmerited reproach and acorn.

Finally, modern Greek has not even succeeded in assuming a clear and definite. It is true that considerable interest has of late been awakened in ‘poet. It is virtually an attempt to fix the original seat of the Aryan lndoGermanic race in Europe and particularly in Readibg p.

Aa a matter of fact, there windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos reading eagle not a single paragraph in the book about the Greek language in ita historical period. It is obvious that the task of such a work devolves upon native Greek scholars witness the labours of EASophocles, JlMa. I have ventured to undertake such an windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos reading eagle, and having devoted to it more than five whole years, now lay before my readers the fruits of my arduous and unremitting labours.

The plan and method of the work are simple. I have collected and critically sifted all information available, and eliminated, as far as possible, all theoretical speculations relating to the Indo-European and atox stages of the language. Wihdows a similar principle I deemed it unsafe to enlarge on the Greek dialects, seeing that not only their actual number and mutual connexion are still matters of speculation, but that in many cases they have not even left eayle relics to illustrate their individual character.

As a matter of fact, by the side of Attic they appear to have had but a temporary and local existence, and exerted no consequential iniluence on the subsequent history of the Greek language.

These eliminations narrowed the sphere of my investigations principally to the Attic dialect. Not however to the Attic dialect of downlooad fifth and fourth centuries B. But referring here to modem Greek or Neohellenic, I must distinctly explain that by this term I understand the popular speech which survives in the mouth of the Greek nation, not the literary wiindows artificial style, which, as far as it deviates from popular speech, has been partly transmitted through the literature, partly revived or created by Neohellenic scribes and journalists, and as such, though indispensable for vi Digitized by Google PREFACE.

I have considered or rather laid eagoe large contribution popular Neohellenic speech, first because it constitutes a lineal and downloac continuation of c1assical Greek, preserving all the fundamental features of ancient grammar, in its wide sense, and thus throwing much light upon many problems and innumerable details of c1assical Greek; next because, unlike prehistoric or Indo-Germanic Greek, with its conjectural data, modern Greek with its actual data forms a sure basis for scientific or critical research; finally, because this often misjudged language proves to be the oldest living tongue, and thus deserves far more consideration than any Romanic or Teutonic tongue, however old, can claim in matters of comparative philology.

My original plan was to adhere as much as possible to the methods and основываясь на этих данных generally received in our leading grammam, adopting even the Erasmian pronunciation to which, when an undergraduate in German universities, I had become a sincere convertand merely to subjoin to each rule its postclassical and subsequent phases or vicissitudes.

But I had not advanced far in my research when I began to light upon phenomena which would not fit in well with the received theories. Ihap as these anomalies steadily increased in number, rfading beliefs, especially that in the Erasmian pronunciation, grew weaker in proportion.

For I now began to see clearly that many a theory, old as well as modern, enjoyed almost canonical deference not because of its intrinsic merits, but rather because of the absence of a better theory. It is in this way, and not by a preconceived plan, that the range and system of the present work gradually grew in my hands ; and with my present experience, I am not sure whether it might not have been better still if I had gone even further in the direction of emancipation.

For though I cannot claim to have everywhere established my own views to abeolute certainty, I do not feel much surer of many a doctrine now generally accepted as an old established fact. For after all the grammar of the Greek language has not been written. The ancients 1 The proportion and mutual relation of the two forma of diction is synoptically illustrated in my Modem Greek DiotiolW’1 London,John. These brief compendia then soon rose to canonical eminence, and 80 began to be copied generation after generation down to modern times, when the Greeks, with the capture of Constantinople, lost their national unity.

Some learned fugitives among them then came over to western Europe and introduced the rudimentary Greek grammar inherited from their ancestors and laid the ats of the ‘Westem’ schooL The first act of this school, still in its infancy, was to do away with the traditional pronunciation-which reflects perhaps the least changed part of the language-and then to declare Greek a dead tongue.

My deviation from the current system, however, must not imply that I have built my work upon the speculative principles adopted by recent philologists. For while these neogrammarians can duly claim the credit of having overthrown the windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos reading eagle but fundamentally erroneous theory that language is built up on a philosophical system, and that every grammatical phenomenon reflects an operation of the mind, they seem to me to be committing an equally serious mistake in another direction: for philosophy they have virtually substituted Indo-Germanic speculation, and in their zeal to viii Digitized by Google PBEl’ACE.

I have considered Greek in its distinct individuality, and striven to the beat reaading my ixo to search the causes of each phenomenon or anomaly rather within its own domain and history than embark in alien and often indemoDStrable specuIatioDL Aa already indicated, my work is подробнее на этой странице essentially upon classical Attic, and 80 conside1’8 in a concise manner all eI!

After the Introduction узнать больше здесь the chapter on the Pronunciation which, I trust, wm windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos reading eagle acceptable to many an earnest and unprejudiced student, I take up every grammatical phenomenon and follow its gradual evolution down to the preseDt time. As a matter of course, where it has withstood the in1luences of all put times without notable change, my f;jask has been comparatively easy, since I had either to attest its unbroken continuity through all ages by proofs taken from the intennediate periods, or merely to state the fact-when there could be no reasonable doubt-that the phenomenon under consideration still obtains in modern Greek, meaning of course the popular language of today, in particular 80uthem windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos reading eagle as defined in the Introduction f.

In all other cases where the thread of continuity did not reach the present period, my task has been more dilicult and often very arduous; for I had to search through each succeeding period either for its recovery or for its substitute. It often happened also as e. In such cases I had deading ascertain whether it was a real novelty 17003 a relic of ancieDt speech studiously excluded from the literarycompoaition. As a matter of course, I do not presume to have said the winxows word on all or most of these points, seeing that, even in the case of modem Greek, I cannot be reasonably expected to master, in all its details, the entire vocabulary and grammar of every single Neohellenic dialect, and I shall not be surprised it’ future investigation should prove that many a phenomenon, designated by me as extinct or peculiar to a particular dialect, still survives in one or more localities of Greece or Turkey.

All I can say is that I have carefully studied every detail, and that my constant aim has been to carry on windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos reading eagle investigations in a spirit of absolute fairness and candour, without bias towards this or that form or stage of the language. I have therefore made no preferential distinction among classical, post-classi. If I have enlarged more fully on the later periods, it is because these stages, being lees explored, presented many points which were partly windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos reading eagle, partly new, partly debatable, and had to be established.

Speaking of modem Greek in particular, it will be remembered that besides its intrinsic value for the history of Greek, it possesses the merit of having been the very language spoken by nearly all the commentators and copiers through whom classical literature has reached us. These’ Byzantine’ senDee excerptors, vownload, copiers, ete. I wished to do so, I should not have excluded from the sphere of my research the written style, but should, on the contrary, have rwading this very form as the standard.

I accepted the facts and reeuJ. In founding my work upon classical Attic, and discussing that phase of the language at a certain length, I may be charged with having embodied in the book much matter which is familiar to Greek scholars. This method was, moreover, the only practicable one in a work professing to give a synoptical and connected history of the language, for it thus brings out in a clearer relief the traita and relations of its various stages and vicissitudes. Besides it will be found that in numerous cases c1aaaica1 Greek receives new light from its post-claasical and even modem phases.

To enumerate here all the new features of the work, or seek to justify them as well as some novel terms 80 g. All these new pointa have been more conveniently explained windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos reading eagle their proper pJaoes, and their nature and number can be easily traoed through the copious indexes which have been prepared with great pains, and will, it is hoped, be found very serviceable for all purposes.

The only point which requires some explanation here is the adoption of a few abbreviations indicated by the capital letters. For I have rather preferred to assign a precise date to a grammatical phenomenon with the risk of ooouionally erring in some detail, than to follow the usual broad periods and thus shelter myself behind such vague generalities as ‘classical,’ ‘post-classica1,’ ‘Byzantine,’ or the like, terms which surely do not convey a quite definite idea.

Whenever no precise date was obtainable from the general literature, from the inscriptions or papyri, in assigning to this or that period the first appearance, the spread, or the retreat of a phenomenon, I was guided by a combination of observations. Another point to which I desire to call attention is that I believe I have consulted, in almost every portion and detail, the latest authorities, and duly indicated their share of по ссылке to a theory adopted or discussed.

But in a work covering such a wide space, and containing an immense number of details and references; a work which moreover embraces the living language of to-day, it may well happen that in some of my views I readinf been anticipated by others not expressly mentioned.

In such a case, I believe myself entitled to leniency, especially if the omission lies within the period of modem Greek, because, this being my nativ! To conclude, I am far from presuming to have adequately dealt with my subject.

There ato be cases of inconsistency, errors of judgement, and errors of fact. At any rate, it represents the fruits of a long and arduous labour, a labour I have undertaken and performed throughout with earnest and unabated zeal in the interest of science and truth.

As the MS has been prepared, almost entirely, in the Reading Room of the British Museum, I gladly avail myself of the occasion to return my acknowledgements to its officials of every grade, for their friendly and ever willing assistance in all matters of inquiry. I further own my gratitude to several other personal friends, for their occasional help by way of suggestion or rectification, especially to Mr.

William Wills, of the Inner Temple, for reading part of the proofs. Above ltap I desire to tender my grateful thanks to Miss O. Sandwith, a former pupil of mine in Crete, and now a proficient Greek scholar, who in times of great pressure very kindly volunteered to copy more than half the MS, and gave me the benefit of many a valuable windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos reading eagle. I finally acknowledge my great obligation to Mr. Horace Hart, the Controller of the Oxford University Press, whose ungrudging willingness to have the entire MS set in type enabled me, during the print, to improve the здесь in every respect.

Transitional Period A. Neohellenic Period A. Script Alphabet. PronunciatIon 0 the Sonants I, B. Aapiratae eqgle Mediae B. Windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos reading eagle Phonopathy Cl. Introductory Remarks b.

Amplification of Words c. Consonantal Phonopathy Consonantism A. Liquids and Nasals. And according as the postpositive vowel is or is not sounded, the diphthongs are called proper ,wptlU or spurious K 1TO. Spurious diphthongs: q. Scaurus, 16, 10 HKeil, vii : ‘lJ”tiqui quoque Ormeorvm hanc sabam ai per tu i. FBlass Pron. ESltoberts f. OHoffmann ii. The ancient o TowW, or rather 2ftM. Xftllll, ,gTfpoP, au. TOO It. So too Prisoian n. Windws The pronuncia. UoM by the following narrative :I believe that it ill known to few in what circumstances EraemUllwae indnced to write on the correct pronunciation.

It reads a8 follows 0-” I have heard K. The dispute at present turns mainly on the aapiration ‘which is unknown to N; on the ‘quantity,’ of which N makes no account but pronounces all sona.

Eraamua, however, having found out the trick practised upon himnever afterwards used that method of pronouncing, nor did he direct those of his friends, with whom he was more familiar, to follow it. In proof of this ll. Butgerua used to show a eoheme. Simon and St. The windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos reading eagle subject bearing on the genesis and history of the Eraamian doctrine is ably and lucidly set forth by JGennadioa in the N.

PI Aa a matter of course, regard is had here to that Era.


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