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Napier’s History of the Peninsular War. Longfellow’s Works — poems — prose — Dante. Boswell’s Life Of Johnson. Byron’s Poetical Works. The Scene wherein Thyestes eats his own Children, is to be performed by the famous Mr Psalmanazar 1 , lately arrived from Formosa ; The whole Supper being set to Kettle-drums.
Accommodations are provided, and Persons admitted in their masquing Habits. Any Person may agree by the Great, and be kept in Repair by the Year. The Doctor draws Teeth without pulling off your Mask. James’s Coffee-house, either by miscalling the Servants, or requiring such things from them as are not properly within their respective Provinces; this is to give Notice, that Kidney, Keeper of the Book-Debts of the outlying Customers, and Observer of those who go off without paying, having resigned that Employment, is succeeded by John Sowton; to whose Place of Enterer of Messages and first Coffee-Grinder, William Bird is promoted; and Samuel Burdock comes as Shooe-Cleaner in the Room of the said Bird.
They are not only instructed to pronounce Words distinctly, and in a proper Tone and Accent, but to speak the Language with great Purity and Volubility of Tongue, together with all the fashionable Phrases and Compliments now in use either at Tea-Tables or visiting Days. Those that have good Voices may be taught to sing the newest Opera-Airs, and, if requir’d, to speak either Italian or French, paying something extraordinary above the common Rates.
They whose Friends are not able to pay the full Prices may be taken as Half-boarders. She teaches such as are design’d for the Diversion of the Publick, and to act in enchanted Woods on the Theatres, by the Great.
As she has often observ’d with much Concern how indecent an Education is usually given these innocent Creatures, which in some Measure is owing to their being plac’d in Rooms next the Street, where, to the great Offence of chaste and tender Ears, they learn Ribaldry, obscene Songs, and immodest Expressions from Passengers and idle People, and also to cry Fish and Card-matches, with other useless Parts of Learning to Birds who have rich Friends, she has fitted up proper and neat Apartments for them in the back Part of her said House; where she suffers none to approach them but her self, and a Servant Maid who is deaf and dumb, and whom she provided on purpose to prepare their Food and cleanse their Cages; having found by long Experience how hard a thing it is for those to keep Silence who have the Use of Speech, and the Dangers her Scholars are expos’d to by the strong Impressions that are made by harsh Sounds and vulgar Dialects.
In short, if they are Birds of any Parts or Capacity, she will undertake to render them so accomplish’d in the Compass of a Twelve-month, that they shall be fit Conversation for such Ladies as love to chuse their Friends and Companions out of this Species. Powell, as sometimes raising himself Applause from the ill Taste of an Audience; I must do him the Justice to own, that he is excellently formed for a Tragoedian, and, when he pleases, deserves the Admiration of the best Judges; as I doubt not but he will in the Conquest of Mexico, which is acted for his own Benefit To-morrow Night.
She is also well-skilled in the Drapery-part, and puts on Hoods and mixes Ribbons so as to suit the Colours of the Face with great Art and Success. This Day is publish’d An Essay on Criticism.
Printed for W. Salvatore, founded by Desiderius, king of Lombardy, including three churches, two of which now contain the fine medieval museum, which possesses good ivories. The church of S. There are also some good Renaissance palaces and other buildings, including the Municipio, begun in and completed by Jacopo Sansovino in This is a magnificent structure, with fine ornamentation.
Many other churches, and the picture gallery Galleria Martinengo , contain fine works of the painters of the Brescian school, Alessandro Bonvicino generally known as Moretto , Girolamo Romanino and Moretto’s pupil, Giovanni Battista Moroni. The city is well supplied with water, and has no less than seventy-two public fountains. The stone quarries of Mazzano, 8 m.
The ancient Celtic Brixia, a town of the Cenomani, became Roman in b. Augustus founded a civil not a military colony here in 27 b. In it was plundered by Attila, but was the seat of a duchy in the Lombard period. From it was one of the most active members of the Lombard League.
In it fell into the hands of Eccelino of Verona, and belonged to the Scaligers della Scala until , when it came under the Visconti of Milan, and in under Venice. Early in the 16th century it was one of the wealthiest cities of Lombardy, but has never recovered from its sack by the French under Gaston de Foix in It belonged to Venice until , when it came under Austrian dominion; it revolted in , and again in , being the only Lombard town to rally to Charles Albert in the latter year, but was taken after ten days’ obstinate street fighting by the Austrians under Haynau.
The Oder, which here breaks into several arms, divides the city into two unequal halves, crossed by numerous bridges. Outside, as well as across the Oder, lies the new town with extensive suburbs, containing, especially in the Schweidnitz quarter in the south, and the Oder quarter in the north, many handsome streets and spacious squares. The inner town, in contrast to the suburbs, still retains with its narrow streets much of its ancient characters, and contains several medieval buildings, both religious and secular, of great beauty and interest.
The cathedral, dedicated to St John the Baptist, was begun in and completed at the close of the 15th century, enlarged in the 17th and 18th centuries, and restored between and ; it is rich in notable treasures, especially the high altar of beaten silver, and in beautiful paintings and sculptures. The Kreuzkirche church of the Holy Cross , dating from the 13th and 14th centuries, is an interesting brick building, remarkable for its stained glass and its historical monuments, among which is the tomb of Henry IV.
The Sandkirche, so called from its dedication to Our Lady on the Sand, dates from the 14th century, and was until the church of the Augustinian canons. The Dorotheenor Minoritenkirche, remarkable for its high-pitched roof, was founded by the emperor Charles IV. These are the most notable of the Roman Catholic churches. Of the Evangelical churches the most important is that of St Elizabeth, founded about , rebuilt in the 14th and 15th centuries, and restored in Its lofty tower contains the largest bell in Silesia, and the church possesses a celebrated organ, fine stained glass, a magnificent stone pyx erected in over 52 ft.
The church of St Mary Magdalen, built in the 14th century on the model of the cathedral, has two lofty Gothic towers connected by a bridge, and is interesting as having been the church in which, in , the reformation in Silesia was first proclaimed. Other noteworthy ecclesiastical buildings are the graceful Gothic church of St Michael built in , the bishop’s palace and the Jewish synagogue, the finest in Germany after that in Berlin.
The business streets of the city converge upon the Ring, the market square, in which is the town-hall, a fine Gothic building, begun in the middle of the 14th and completed in the 16th century. It was built as a college by the Jesuits, on the site of the former imperial castle presented to them by the emperor Leopold I.
There are also numerous hospitals and schools. Breslau is exceedingly rich in fine monuments; the most noteworthy being the equestrian statues of Frederick the Great and Frederick William III. There are also several handsome fountains. Foremost among the educational establishments stands the university, founded in by the emperor Leopold I. Its library contains , volumes and MSS. Among its auxiliary establishments are botanical gardens, an observatory, and anatomical, physiological and kindred institutions.
There are eight classical and four modern schools, two higher girls’ schools, a Roman Catholic normal school, a Jewish theological seminary, a school of arts and crafts, and numerous literary and charitable foundations.
It is, however, as a commercial and industrial city that Breslau is most widely known. Its situation, close to the extensive coal and iron fields of Upper Silesia, in proximity to the Austrian and Russian frontiers, at the centre of a network of railways directly communicating both with these countries and with the chief towns of northern and central Germany, and on a deep waterway connecting with the Elbe and the Vistula, facilitates its very considerable transit and export trade in the products of the province and of the neighbouring countries.
These embrace coal, sugar, cereals, spirits, petroleum and timber. The local industries comprise machinery and tools, railway and tramway carriages, furniture, cast-iron goods, gold and silver work, carpets, furs, cloth and cottons, paper, musical instruments, glass and china. Breslau is the headquarters of the VI. German army corps and contains a large garrison of troops of all arms.
Vratislavia is first mentioned by the chronicler Thietmar, bishop of Merseburg, in a. Early in the 11th century it was made the seat of a bishop, and after having formed part of Poland, became the capital of an independent duchy in Destroyed by the Mongols in , it soon recovered its former prosperity and received a large influx of German colonists. The bishop obtained the title of a prince of the Empire in The Bohemian kings bestowed various privileges on Breslau, which soon began to extend its commerce in all directions, while owing to increasing wealth the citizens took up a more independent attitude.
After his death in it again became subject to Bohemia, passing with the rest of Silesia to the Habsburgs when in Ferdinand, afterwards emperor, was chosen king of Bohemia. Having passed almost undisturbed through the periods of the Reformation and the Thirty Years’ War, Breslau was compelled to own the authority of Frederick the Great in It was, however, recovered by the Austrians in , but was regained by Frederick after his victory at Leuthen in the same year, and has since belonged to Prussia, although it was held for a few days by the French in after the battle of Jena, and again in after the battle of Bautzen.
In March this monarch issued from Breslau his stirring appeals to the Prussians, An mein Volk and An mein Kriegesheer , and the city was the centre of the Prussian preparations for the campaign which ended at Leipzig. After the Prussian victory at Sadowa in , William I.
Silisiae,” vol. The Austrian part of Neisse still belongs to the bishop of Breslau, who also still bears the title of prince bishop. In he went to the French theatre at St Petersburg, where for eight years he played important parts with ever-increasing reputation. Bressant retired in , and died on the 23rd of January During his professorship at the Conservatoire, Mounet-Sully was one of his pupils.
It is a plain varying from to ft. Heaths and coppice alternate with pastures and arable land; pools and marshes are numerous, especially in the north. The soil is a gravelly clay but moderately fertile, and cattle-raising is largely carried on. The region is, however, more especially celebrated for its table poultry. The inhabitants preserve a distinctive but almost obsolete costume, with a curious head-dress.
The Bresse proper, called the Bresse Bressane , comprises the northern portion of the department of Ain. It was not till the first half of the 15th century that the province, with Bourg as its capital, was founded as such. In it was ceded to France by the treaty of Lyons, after which it formed together with the province of Bugey first a separate government and afterwards part of the government of Burgundy. The town is situated on an eminence overlooking the Dolo, a tributary of the Argenton.
It is the centre of a cattle-rearing and agricultural region, and has important markets; the manufacture of wooden type and woollen goods is carried on.
Bressuire has two buildings of interest: the church of Notre-Dame, which, dating chiefly from the 12th and 15th centuries, has an imposing tower of the Renaissance period; and the castle, built by the lords of [v. The whole forms the finest assemblage of feudal ruins in Poitou.
Bressuire is the seat of a sub-prefect and has a tribunal of first instance. Among the disasters suffered at various times by the town, its capture from the English and subsequent pillage by French troops under du Guesclin in is the most memorable. Population town, 71,; commune, 85, It is situated to the north of a magnificent landlocked bay, and occupies the slopes of two hills divided by the river Penfeld,—the part of the town on the left bank being regarded as Brest proper, while the part on the right is known as Recouvrance.
There are also extensive suburbs to the east of the town. The hill-sides are in some places so steep that the ascent from the lower to the upper town has to be effected by flights of steps and the second or third storey of one house is often on a level with the ground storey of the next. Running along the shore to the south of the town is the Cours d’Ajot, one of the finest promenades of its kind in France, named after the engineer who constructed it.
It is planted with trees and adorned with marble statues of Neptune and Abundance by Antoine Coysevox. The castle with its donjon and seven towers 12th to the 16th centuries , commanding the entrance to the river, is the only interesting building in the town. Brest is the capital of one of the five naval arrondissements of France. The naval port, which is in great part excavated in the rock, extends along both banks of the Penfeld; it comprises gun-foundries and workshops, magazines, shipbuilding yards and repairing docks, and employs about workmen.
There are also large naval barracks, training ships and naval schools of various kinds, and an important naval hospital. Brest is the seat of a sub-prefect and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, two naval tribunals, and a tribunal of maritime commerce. The commercial port, which is separated from the town itself by the Cours d’Ajot, comprises a tidal port with docks and an outer harbour; it is protected by jetties to the east and west and by a breakwater on the south.
In the number of vessels entered was with a tonnage of 67,, and cleared with a tonnage of 61, The chief were wine, coal, timber, mineral tar, fertilizers and lobsters and crayfish. Besides its sardine and mackerel fishing industry, the town has flour-mills, breweries, foundries, forges, engineering works, and manufactures of blocks, candles, chemicals from sea-weed , boots, shoes and linen.
Brest communicates by submarine cable with America and French West Africa. The roadstead consists of a deep indentation with a maximum length of 14 m. Brest is a fortress of the first class. In John of Montfort gave it up to the English, and it did not finally leave their hands till Its medieval importance was great enough to give rise to the saying, “He is not duke of Brittany who is not lord of Brest.
The advantages of the situation for a seaport town were first recognized by Richelieu, who in constructed a harbour with wooden wharves, which soon became a station of the French navy. Colbert changed the wooden wharves for masonry and otherwise improved the post, and Vauban’s fortifications followed in During the 18th century the fortifications and the naval importance of the town continued to develop.
In an English squadron under John, 3rd Lord Berkeley, was miserably defeated in attempting a landing; but in , during the revolutionary war, the French fleet, under Villaret de Joyeuse, was as thoroughly beaten in the same place by the English admiral Howe. Berestie and Berestov , a strongly fortified town of Russia, in the government of Grodno, m.
It contains a Jewish synagogue, which was regarded in the 16th century as the first in Europe, and is the seat of an Armenian and of a Greek Catholic bishop; the former has authority over the Armenians throughout the whole country.
The town carries on an extensive trade in grain, flax, hemp, wood, tar and leather. First mentioned in the beginning of the 11th century, Brest-Litovsk was in laid waste by the Mongols and was not rebuilt till ; its suburbs were burned by the Teutonic Knights in ; and in the end of the 15th century the whole town met a similar fate at the hands of the khan of the Crimea.
In , and again in , the town was captured by the Swedes; in it was the scene of Suvarov’s victory over the Polish general Sierakowski; in it was added to the Russian empire.
The Brest-Litovsk or King’s canal 50 m. He was only twenty-eight when he was appointed by Louis XV. He arranged to be temporarily absent from his post at the time of the palace revolution by which Catherine II. In he was sent to Stockholm, and subsequently represented his government at Vienna, Naples, and again at Vienna until , when he was recalled to become minister of the king’s household. In this capacity he introduced considerable reforms in prison administration. A close friend of Marie Antoinette, he presently came into collision with Calonne, who demanded his dismissal in His influence with the king and queen, especially with the latter, remained unshaken, and on Necker’s dismissal on the 11th of July , Breteuil succeeded him as chief minister.
His distrust of the king’s brothers and his defence of Louis XVI. Breteuil himself was the object of violent attacks from the party of the princes, who asserted that he persisted in exercising powers which had been revoked by Louis XVI. After the execution of Marie Antoinette he retired into private life near Hamburg, only returning to France in He died in Paris on the 2nd of November See the memoirs of Bertrand de Molleville 2 vols.
Daudet, Coblentz, , forming part of his Hist. Eure-et-Loir, arrondissement and canton of Chartres, commune of Sours , which gave its name to a celebrated treaty concluded there on the 8th of May , between Edward III. The exactions of the English, who wished to yield as few as possible of the advantages claimed by them in the treaty of London, made negotiations difficult, and the discussion of terms begun early in April lasted more than a month. By virtue of this treaty Edward III.
John II. On his side the king of England gave up the duchies of Normandy and Touraine, the countships of Anjou and Maine, and the suzerainty of Brittany and of Flanders. As a guarantee for the payment of his ransom, John the Good gave as hostages two of his sons, several princes and nobles, four inhabitants of Paris, and two citizens from each of the nineteen principal towns of France.
This treaty was ratified and sworn to by the two kings and by their eldest sons on the 24th of October , at Calais. At the same time were signed the special conditions relating to each important article of the treaty, and the renunciatory clauses in which the kings abandoned their rights over the territory they had yielded to one another.
See Rymer’s Foedera , vol. Luce, vol. Paris, vol. His artistic gifts being manifest at an early age, he was sent in to Ghent, to study under the historical painter de Vigne, and in to Baron Wappers at Antwerp. Finally he worked in Paris under Drolling. His first efforts were in historical subjects: “Saint Piat preaching in Gaul”; then, under the influence of the revolution of , he represented “Misery and Despair.
Thenceforward he was essentially a painter of rustic life, especially in the province of Artois, which he quitted only three times for short excursions: in to Provence, and in and to Brittany, whence he derived some of his happiest studies of religious scenes.
His numerous subjects may be divided generally into four classes: labour, rest, rural festivals and religious festivals. Breton was elected to the Institut in on the death of Baudry. In he was made commander of the Legion of Honour, and in foreign member of the Royal Academy of London. Nicholas Breton was probably born at the “capitall mansion house” in Red Cross Street, in the parish of St Giles without Cripplegate, mentioned in his father’s will.
There is no official record of his residence at the university, but the diary of the Rev. Richard Madox tells us that he was at Antwerp in and was “once of Oriel College. He is supposed to have died shortly after the publication of his last work, Fantastickes Breton found a patron in Mary, countess of Pembroke, and wrote much in her honour until , when she seems to have withdrawn her favour.
It is probably safe to supplement the meagre record of his life by accepting as autobiographical some of the letters signed N. His work consists of religious and pastoral poems, satires, and a number of miscellaneous prose tracts.
His religious poems are sometimes wearisome by their excess of fluency and sweetness, but they are evidently the expression of a devout and earnest mind. His praise of the Virgin and his references to Mary Magdalene have suggested that he was a Catholic, but his prose writings abundantly prove that he was an ardent Protestant.
Breton had little gift for satire, and his best work is to be found in his pastoral poetry. His Passionate Shepheard is full of sunshine and fresh air, and of unaffected gaiety. The third pastoral in this book—”Who can live in heart so glad As the merrie country lad”—is well known; with some other of Breton’s daintiest poems, among them the lullaby, “Come little babe, come silly soule,”  —it is incorporated in A.
Bullen’s Lyrics from Elizabethan Romances His keen observation of country life appears also in his prose idyll, Wits Trenchmour , “a conference betwixt a scholler and an angler,” and in his Fantastickes , a series of short prose pictures of the months, the Christian festivals and the hours, which throw much light on the customs of the times. Most of Breton’s books are very rare and have great bibliographical value.
His works, with the exception of some belonging to private owners, were collected by Dr A. Grosart in the [v. Sir Philip Sidney’s Ourania by N. Enlisting on the 24th of May , he served against the French in Valencia and Catalonia, and retired with the rank of corporal on the 8th of March He obtained a minor post in the civil service under the liberal government, and on his discharge determined to earn his living by writing for the stage.
His industry was astonishing: between October and November , he composed thirty-nine plays, six of them original, the rest being translations or recasts of classic masterpieces. In he published a translation of Tibullus, and acquired by it an unmerited reputation for scholarship which secured for him an appointment as sub-librarian at the national library.
But the theatre claimed him for its own, and with the exception of Elena and a few other pieces in the fashionable romantic vein, his plays were a long series of successes. His only serious check occurred in ; the former liberal had grown conservative with age, and in La Ponchada he ridiculed the National Guard.
He became secretary to the Spanish Academy, quarrelled with his fellow-members, and died at Madrid on the 8th of November He is the author of some three hundred and sixty original plays, twenty-three of which are in prose. No Spanish dramatist of the nineteenth century approaches him in comic power, in festive invention, and in the humorous presentation of character, while his metrical dexterity is unique.
In he entered the university of Leipzig, where he studied theology for four years. After some years of hesitation he resolved to be ordained, and in he passed with great distinction the examination for candidatus theologiae , and attracted the regard of F. Reinhard, author of the System der christlichen Moral , then court-preacher at Dresden, who became his warm friend and patron during the remainder of his life.
In Bretschneider was Privat-docent at the university of Wittenberg, where he lectured on philosophy and theology. During this time he wrote his work on the development of dogma, Systematische Entwickelung aller in der Dogmatik vorkommenden Begriffe nach den symbolischen Schriften der evangelisch-lutherischen und reformirten Kirche , 4th ed.
On the advance of the French army under Napoleon into Prussia, he determined to leave Wittenberg and abandon his university career. Through the good offices of Reinhard, he became pastor of Schneeberg in Saxony In he was promoted to the office of superintendent of the church of Annaberg, in which capacity he had to decide, in accordance with the canon law of Saxony, many matters belonging to the department of ecclesiastical law.
But the climate did not agree with him, and his official duties interfered with his theological studies. With a view to a change he took the degree of doctor of theology in Wittenberg in August In he was appointed general superintendent at Gotha, where he remained until his death in This was the great period of his literary activity. In was published his treatise on the gospel of St John, entitled Probabilia de Evangelii el Epistolarum Joannis Apostoli indole et origine , which attracted much attention.
In it he collected with great fulness and discussed with marked moderation the arguments against Johannine authorship. This called forth a number of replies. To the astonishment of every one, Bretschneider announced in the preface to the second edition of his Dogmatik in , that he had never doubted the authenticity of the gospel, and had published his Probabilia only to draw attention to the subject, and to call forth a more complete defence of its genuineness.
Bretschneider remarks in his autobiography that the publication of this work had the effect of preventing his appointment as successor to Karl C. His greatest contribution to the science of exegesis was his Lexicon Manuale Graeco-Latinum in libros Novi Testamenti , 3rd ed. This work was valuable for the use which its author made of the Greek of the Septuagint, of the Old and New Testament Apocrypha, of Josephus, and of the apostolic fathers, in illustration of the language of the New Testament.
In he published Apologie der neuern Theologie des evangelischen Deutschlands. Hugh James Rose had published in England a volume of sermons on the rationalist movement The State of the Protestant Religion in Germany , in which he classed Bretschneider with the rationalists; and Bretschneider contended that he himself was not a rationalist in the ordinary sense of the term, but a “rational supernaturalist.
His dogmatic position seems to be intermediate between the extreme school of naturalists, such as Heinrich Paulus, J. Strauss and F. Baur on the other.
Recognizing a supernatural element in the Bible, he nevertheless allowed to the full the critical exercise of reason in the interpretation of its dogmas cp. Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology , pp. See his autobiography, Aus meinem Leben: Selbstbiographie von K.
Bretschneider Gotha, , of which a translation, with notes, by Professor George E. It has some manufactories of machinery and japanned goods, and a considerable trade in timber and livestock. Bretten was the birthplace of Melanchthon , and in addition to a [v.
In the Chronicle the title is given to Ecgbert, king of the English, “the eighth king that was Bretwalda,” and retrospectively to seven kings who ruled over one or other of the English kingdoms. The seven names are copied from Bede’s Historia Ecclesiastica , and it is interesting to note that the last king named, Oswiu of Northumbria, lived years before Ecgbert.
It has been assumed that these seven kings exercised a certain superiority over a large part of England, but if such superiority existed it is certain that it was extremely vague and was unaccompanied by any unity of organization. Another theory is that Bretwalda refers to a war-leadership, or imperium , over the English south of the Humber, and has nothing to do with Britons or Britannia.
In support of this explanation it is urged that the title is given in the Chronicle to Ecgbert in the year in which he “conquered the kingdom of the Mercians and all that was south of the Humber. See E. Freeman, History of the Norman Conquest , vol. Oxford, ; W. Stubbs, Constitutional History , vol. Oxford, ; J. Green, The Making of England , vol. London, ; F. Rhys, Celtic Britain London, After receiving instruction in painting from Koek, whose daughter he married, he spent some time in France and Italy, and then went to Antwerp, where he was elected into the Academy in He finally settled at Brussels and died there.
The subjects of his pictures are chiefly humorous figures, like those of D. Teniers; and if he wants the delicate touch and silvery clearness of that master, he has abundant spirit and comic power. He is said to have died about the year at the age of sixty; other accounts give as the date of his death.
His son Pieter , the younger , known as “Hell” Breughel, was born in Brussels and died at Antwerp, where his “Christ bearing the Cross” is in the museum. Another son Jan c. He first applied himself to painting flowers and fruits, and afterwards acquired considerable reputation by his landscapes and sea-pieces.
After residing long at Cologne he travelled into Italy, where his landscapes, adorned with small figures, were greatly admired. He left a large number of pictures, chiefly landscapes, which are executed with great skill. Rubens made use of Breughel’s hand in the landscape part of several of his small pictures—such as his “Vertumnus and Pomona,” the “Satyr viewing the Sleeping Nymph,” and the “Terrestrial Paradise.
The use of the word is mainly confined to a commission, or official document, giving to an officer in the army a permanent, as opposed to a local and temporary, rank in the service higher than that he holds substantively in his corps.
In the British army “brevet rank” exists only above the rank of captain, but in the United States army it is possible to obtain a brevet as first lieutenant. In the early days of Christian worship, when Jewish custom was followed, the Bible furnished all that was thought necessary, containing as it did the books from which the lessons were read and the psalms that were recited.
The first step in the evolution of the Breviary was the separation of the Psalter into a choir-book. At first the president of the local church bishop or the leader of the choir chose a particular psalm as he thought appropriate. From about the 4th century certain psalms began to be grouped together, a process that was furthered by the monastic practice of daily reciting the psalms. This took so much time that the monks began to spread it over a week, dividing each day into hours, and allotting to each hour its portion of the Psalter.
St Benedict in the 6th century drew up such an arrangement, probably, though not certainly, on the basis of an older Roman division which, though not so skilful, is the one in general use.
Gradually there were added to these psalter choir-books additions in the form of antiphons, responses, collects or short prayers, for the use of those not skilful at improvisation and metrical compositions. Jean Beleth, a 12th-century liturgical author, gives the following list of books necessary for the right conduct of the canonical office:—the Antiphonarium , the Old and New Testaments, the Passionarius liber and the Legendarius dealing respectively with martyrs and saints , the Homiliarius homilies on the Gospels , the Sermologus collection of sermons and the works of the Fathers, besides, of course, the Psalterium and the Collectarium.
To overcome the inconvenience of using such a library the Breviary came into existence and use. Already in the 8th century Prudentius, bishop of Troyes, had in a Breviarium Psalterii made an abridgment of the Psalter for the laity, giving a few psalms for each day, and Alcuin had rendered a similar service by including a prayer for each day and some other prayers, but no lessons or homilies.
The Breviary rightly so called, however, only dates from the 11th century; the earliest MS. Gregory VII. These preaching friars, with the authorization of Gregory IX. Finally, Nicholas III.
The Benedictines and Dominicans have Breviaries of their own. The only other types that merit notice are:— 1 the Mozarabic Breviary, once in use throughout all Spain, but now confined to a single foundation at Toledo; it is remarkable for the number and length of its hymns, and for the fact that the majority of its collects are addressed to God the Son; 2 the Ambrosian, now confined to Milan, where it owes its retention to the attachment of the clergy and people to their traditionary rites, which they derive from St Ambrose see Liturgy.
Till the council of Trent every bishop had full power to regulate the Breviary of his own diocese; and this was acted upon almost everywhere. Each monastic community, also, had one of its own.
Pius V. But the influence of the court of Rome has gradually gone much beyond this, and has superseded almost all the local “uses. The Roman Breviary has undergone several revisions: The most remarkable of these is that by Francis Quignonez, cardinal of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme , which, though not accepted by Rome,  formed the model for the still more thorough reform made in by the Church of England, whose daily morning and evening services are but a condensation and simplification of the Breviary offices.
Some parts of the prefaces at the beginning of the English Prayer-Book are free translations of those of Quignonez. The Pian Breviary was again altered by Sixtus V. In the 17th and 18th centuries a movement of revision took place in France, and succeeded in modifying about half the Breviaries of that country.
This was mainly carried out by the adoption of a rule that all antiphons and responses should be in the exact words of Scripture, which, of course, cut out the whole class of appeals to created beings. The services were at the same time simplified and shortened, and the use of the whole Psalter every week which had become a mere theory in the Roman Breviary, owing to its frequent supersession by saints’ day services was made a reality.
These reformed French Breviaries— e. Meanwhile, under the direction of Benedict XIV. Subsequent changes have been very few and minute.
The beauty and value of many of the Latin Breviaries were brought to the notice of English churchmen by one of the numbers of the Oxford Tracts for the Times , since which time they have been much more studied, both for their own sake and for the light they throw upon the English Prayer-Book.
From a bibliographical point of view some of the early printed Breviaries are among the rarest of literary curiosities, being merely local. The copies were not spread far, and were soon worn out by the daily use made of them. Doubtless many editions have perished without leaving a trace of their existence, while others are known by unique copies.
In Scotland the only one which has survived the convulsions of the 16th century is that of Aberdeen, a Scottish form of the Sarum Office,  revised by William Elphinstone bishop , and printed at Edinburgh by Walter Chapman and Andrew Myllar in Four copies have been preserved of it, of which only one is complete; but it was reprinted in facsimile in for the Bannatyne Club by the munificence of the duke of Buccleuch. It is particularly valuable for the trustworthy notices of the early history of Scotland which are embedded in the lives of the national saints.
Though enjoined by royal mandate in for general use within the realm of Scotland, it was probably never widely adopted. The new Scottish Proprium sanctioned for the Roman Catholic province of St Andrews in contains many of the old Aberdeen collects and antiphons. The Sarum or Salisbury Breviary itself was very widely used. The first edition was printed at Venice in by Raynald de Novimagio in folio; the latest at Paris, , While modern Breviaries are nearly always printed in four volumes, one for each season of the year, the editions of the Sarum never exceeded two parts.
Contents of the Roman Breviary. The Breviary itself is divided into four seasonal parts—winter, spring, summer, autumn—and comprises under each part 1 the Psalter; 2 Proprium de Tempore the special office of the season ; 3 Proprium Sanctorum special offices of saints ; 4 Commune Sanctorum general offices for saints ; 5 Extra Services.
These parts are often published separately. The Psalter. In the Breviary the psalms are arranged according to a disposition dating from the 8th century, as follows. Psalms i. The omissions are said at Lauds, Prime and Compline. Psalms cix. Psalms cxlviii. The text of this Psalter is that commonly known as the Gallican. The name is misleading, for it is simply the second revision a. Jerome’s first revision of the Itala a. The Antiphonary of Bangor proves that Ireland accepted the Gallican version in the 7th century, and the English Church did so in the 10th.
The Proprium de Tempore contains the office of the seasons of the Christian year Advent to Trinity , a conception that only gradually grew up. There is here given the whole service for every Sunday and week-day, the proper antiphons, responsories, hymns, and especially the course of daily Scripture-reading, averaging about twenty verses a day, and roughly arranged thus: for Advent, Isaiah; Epiphany to Septuagesima, Pauline Epistles; Lent, patristic homilies Genesis on Sundays ; Passion-tide, Jeremiah; Easter to Whitsun, Acts, Catholic epistles and Apocalypse; Whitsun to August, Samuel and Kings; August to Advent, Wisdom books, Maccabees, Prophets.
The extracts are often scrappy and torn out of their context. The Proprium Sanctorum contains the lessons, psalms and liturgical formularies for saints’ festivals, and depends on the days of the secular month. Covering a great stretch of time and space, they do for the worshipper in the field of church history what the Scripture readings do in that of biblical history.
These offices are of very ancient date, and many of them were probably [v. They contain passages of great literary beauty. The lessons read at the third nocturn are patristic homilies on the Gospels, and together form a rough summary of theological instruction. Extra Services. Each of the hours of the office is composed of the same elements, and something must be said now of the nature of these constituent parts, of which mention has here and there been already made.
They are: psalms including canticles , antiphons, responsories, hymns, lessons, little chapters, versicles and collects. The psalms have already been dealt with, but it may be noted again how the multiplication of saints’ festivals, with practically the same special psalms, tends in practice to constant repetition of about one-third of the Psalter, and correspondingly rare recital of the remaining two-thirds, whereas the Proprium de Tempore , could it be adhered to, would provide equal opportunities for every psalm.
The antiphons are short liturgical forms, sometimes of biblical, sometimes of patristic origin, used to introduce a psalm. The term originally signified a chant by alternate choirs, but has quite lost this meaning in the Breviary. The responsories are similar in form to the antiphons, but come at the end of the psalm, being originally the reply of the choir or congregation to the precentor who recited the psalm. The hymns are short poems going back in part to the days of Prudentius, Synesius, Gregory of Nazianzus and Ambrose 4th and 5th centuries , but mainly the work of medieval authors.
The lessons , as has been seen, are drawn variously from the Bible, the Acts of the Saints and the Fathers of the Church. In the primitive church, books afterwards excluded from the canon were often read, e. In later days the churches of Africa, having rich memorials of martyrdom, used them to supplement the reading of Scripture. Monastic influence accounts for the practice of adding to the reading of a biblical passage some patristic commentary or exposition.
Books of homilies were compiled from the writings of SS. Augustine, Hilary, Athanasius, Isidore, Gregory the Great and others, and formed part of the library of which the Breviary was the ultimate compendium.
In the lessons, as in the psalms, the order for special days breaks in upon the normal order of ferial offices and dislocates the scheme for consecutive reading. The lessons are read at Matins which is subdivided into three nocturns. The collects come at the close of the office and are short prayers summing up the supplications of the congregation. With the crystallization of church order improvisation in prayer largely gave place to set forms, and collections of prayers were made which later developed into Sacramentaries and Orationals.
The collects of the Breviary are largely drawn from the Gelasian and other Sacramentaries, and they are used to sum up the dominant idea of the festival in connexion with which they happen to be used.
The difficulty of harmonizing the Proprium de Tempore and the Proprium Sanctorum , to which reference has been made, is only partly met in the thirty-seven chapters of general rubrics. Additional help is given by a kind of Catholic Churchman’s Almanack, called the Ordo Recitandi Divini Officii , published in different countries and dioceses, and giving, under every day, minute directions for proper reading.
Every clerk in orders and every member of a religious order must publicly join in or privately read aloud i. In large churches the services are usually grouped; e. Matins and Lauds about 7. Laymen do not use the Breviary as a manual of devotion to any great extent. The Roman Breviary has been translated into English by the marquess of Bute in ; new ed.
The English version is noteworthy for its inclusion of the skilful renderings of the ancient hymns by J. Newman, J. Neale and others. A complete bibliography is appended to the article by F. Cabrol in the Catholic Encyclopaedia , vol. It is termed a code codex , in the certificate of Anianus, the king’s referendary, but unlike the code of Justinian, from which the writings of jurists were excluded, it comprises both imperial constitutions leges and juridical treatises jura.
From the circumstance that the Breviarium has prefixed to it a royal rescript commonitorium directing that copies of it, certified under the hand of Anianus, should be received exclusively as law throughout the kingdom of the Visigoths, the compilation of the code has been attributed to Anianus by many writers, and it is frequently designated the Breviary of Anianus Breviarium Aniani. The code, however, appears to have been known amongst the Visigoths by the title of “Lex Romana,” or “Lex Theodosii,” and it was not until the 16th century that the title of “Breviarium” was introduced to distinguish it from a recast of the code, which was introduced into northern Italy in the 9th century for the use of the Romans in Lombardy.
This recast of the Visigothic code has been preserved in a MS. Canciani in his collection of ancient laws entitled Barbarorum Leges Antiquae. Another MS. The chief value of the Visigothic code consists in the fact that it is the only collection of Roman Law in which the five first books of the Theodosian code and five books of the Sententiae Receptae of Julius Paulus have been preserved, and until the discovery of a MS.
The most complete edition of the Breviarium will be found in the collection of Roman law published under the title of Jus Civile Ante-Justinianum Berlin, See also G. He was educated at Queen’s College, Oxford, was ordained in the Church of England in , and became chaplain to a central London workhouse. In he was appointed lecturer in classical literature at King’s College, London, and in he became professor of English language and literature and lecturer in modern history, succeeding F.
Meanwhile from onwards he was also engaged in journalistic work on the Morning Herald , Morning Post and Standard. In he was commissioned by the master of the rolls to prepare a calendar of the state papers of Henry VIII. He was also made reader at the Rolls, and subsequently preacher. In Disraeli secured for him the crown living of Toppesfield, Essex.
New editions of several standard historical works were also produced under Brewer’s direction. He died at Toppesfield in February BREWING, in the modern acceptation of the term, a series of operations the object of which is to prepare an alcoholic beverage of a certain kind—to wit, beer—mainly from cereals chiefly malted barley , hops and water. Although the art of preparing beer q. It seems fairly certain, however, that up to the 18th century these were of the most primitive kind. With regard to materials , we know that prior to the general introduction of the hop see Ale as a preservative and astringent, a number of other bitter and aromatic plants had been employed with this end in view.
Thus J. Baker The Brewing Industry points out that the Cimbri used the Tamarix germanica , the Scandinavians the fruit of the sweet gale Myrica gale , the Cauchi the fruit and the twigs of the chaste tree Vitex agrius castus , and the Icelanders the yarrow Achillea millefolium. The preparation of beer on anything approaching to a manufacturing scale appears, until about the 12th or 13th century, to have been carried on in England chiefly in the monasteries; but as the brewers of London combined to form an association in the reign of Henry IV.
After the Reformation the ranks of the trade brewers were swelled by numbers of monks from the expropriated monasteries. Until the 18th century the professional brewers, or brewers for sale, as they are now called, brewed chiefly for the masses, the wealthier classes preparing their own beer, but it then became gradually apparent to the latter owing no doubt to improved methods of brewing, and for others reasons that it was more economical and less troublesome to have their beer brewed for them at a regular brewery.
The usual charge was 30s. This tendency to centralize brewing operations became more and more marked with each succeeding decade. Thus during the number of private brewers declined from 17, to Of the private brewers still existing, about four-fifths were in the class exempted from beer duty, i.
The private houses subject to both beer and licence duty produced less than 20, barrels annually. The disappearance of the smaller public brewers or their absorption by the larger concerns has gone hand-in-hand with the gradual extinction of the private brewer.
In the year licences were issued to brewers for sale, and by this number had been reduced to There are numerous reasons for these changes in the constitution of the brewing industry, chief among them being a the increasing difficulty, owing partly to licensing legislation and its administration, and partly to the competition of the great breweries, of obtaining an adequate outlet for retail sale in the shape of licensed houses; and b the fact that brewing has continuously become a more scientific and specialized industry, requiring costly and complicated plant and expert manipulation.
Under these conditions the small brewer tends to extinction, and the public are ultimately the gainers. The relatively non-alcoholic, lightly hopped and bright modern beers, which the small brewer has not the means of producing, are a great advance on the muddy, highly hopped and alcoholized beverages to which our ancestors were accustomed. The brewing trade has reached vast proportions in the United Kingdom. The maximum production was 37,, barrels in , and while there has been a steady decline since that year, the figures for —34,, barrels—were in excess of those for any year preceding It is interesting in this connexion to note that the writer of the article on Brewing in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica was of the opinion that the brewing industry—which was then producing, roughly, 25,, barrels—had attained its maximum development.
The number of brewers for sale was Of these one firm, namely, Messrs Guinness, owning the largest brewery in the world, brewed upwards of two million barrels, paying a sum of, roughly, one million sterling to the revenue. Three other firms brewed close on a million barrels or upwards.
The quantity of malt used was 51,, bushels; of unmalted corn, , bushels; of rice, flaked maize and similar materials, 1,, cwt.
The average specific gravity of the beer produced in was The quantity of beer exported was ,; of beer imported, 57, barrels. It is curious to note that the figures for exports and imports had remained almost stationary for the last thirty years. By far the greater part of the beer brewed is consumed in England. Thus of the total quantity retained for consumption in , 28,, barrels were consumed in England, 1,, in Scotland, and 3,, in Ireland.
In this figure might be safely doubled. For comparative production and consumption see Beer. Taxation and Regulations. This was gradually increased, amounting to 4s. A duty on malt was first imposed in the reign of William III. The rate at first was under 7d. In the joint beer and malt taxes amounted to no less than 13s. From until the abolition of the malt tax, the latter remained constant at a fraction under 2s. A hop duty varying from 1d.
One of the main reasons for the abolition of the hop duty was the fact that, owing to the uncertainty of the crop, the amount paid to the revenue was subject to wide fluctuations.
It was not until that the use of sugar in brewing was permitted, and in the first sugar tax, amounting to 1s. It varied from this figure up to 6s.
In a general sugar tax of 4s. The chief feature of this act was that, on and after the 1st of October , a beer duty was imposed in lieu of the old malt tax, at the rate of 6s. In the duty on beer was increased by a reduction in the standard of gravity from 1. The duty thus became 6s. See also Liquor Laws. Prior to , rice, flaked maize see below , and other similar preparations had been classed as malt or corn in reference to their wort-producing powers, but after that date they were deemed sugar  in that regard.
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Certain waters, for instance, those contaminated to any extent with organic matter, cannot be used at all in brewing, as they give rise to unsatisfactory fermentation, cloudiness and abnormal flavour. Others again, although suited to the production of one type of beer, are quite unfit for the brewing of another.
For black beers a soft water is a desideratum, for ales of the Burton type a hard water is a necessity. For the brewing of mild ales, again, a water containing a certain proportion of chlorides is required. The excellent quality of the Burton ales was long ago surmised to be due mainly to the well water obtainable in that town.
On analysing Burton water it was found to contain a considerable quantity of calcium sulphate—gypsum—and of other calcium and magnesium salts, and it is now a well-known fact that good bitter ales cannot be brewed except with waters containing these substances in sufficient quantities. Similarly, good mild ale waters should contain a certain quantity of sodium chloride, and waters for stout very little mineral matter, excepting perhaps the carbonates of the alkaline earths, which are precipitated on boiling.
The following analyses from W. Sykes, The Principles and Practice of Brewing are fairly illustrative of typical brewing waters. Our knowledge of the essential chemical constituents of brewing waters enables brewers in many cases to treat an unsatisfactory supply artificially in such a manner as to modify its character in a favourable sense.
Thus, if a soft water only is to hand, and it is desired to brew a bitter ale, all that is necessary is to add a sufficiency of gypsum, magnesium sulphate and calcium chloride. If it is desired to convert a soft water lacking in chlorides into a satisfactory mild ale liquor, the addition of grains of sodium chloride will be necessary.
On the other hand, to convert a hard water into a soft supply is scarcely feasible for brewing purposes. To the substances used for treating brewing liquors already mentioned we may add kainite, a naturally deposited composite salt containing potassium and magnesium sulphates and magnesium chloride.
Malt Substitutes. The quantity of the latter employed was , cwt. At the same time other substitutes, such as unmalted corn and preparations of rice and maize, had come into favour, the quantity of these substances used being in , bushels of unmalted corn and 1,, cwt. The following statistics with regard to the use of malt substitutes in the United Kingdom are not without interest.
The causes which have led to the largely increased use of substitutes in the United Kingdom are of a somewhat complex nature. In the first place, it was not until the malt tax was repealed that the brewer was able to avail himself of the surplus diastatic energy present in malt, for the purpose of transforming starch other than that in malted grain into sugar.
The diastatic enzyme or ferment see below, under Mashing of malted barley is present in that material in great excess, and a part of this surplus energy may be usefully employed in converting the starch of unmalted grain into sugar. The brewer has found also that brewing operations are simplified and accelerated by the use of a certain proportion of substitutes, and that he is thereby enabled appreciably to increase his turn-over, i.
Certain classes of substitutes, too, are somewhat cheaper than malt, and in view of the keenness of modern competition it is not to be wondered at that the brewer should resort to every legitimate means at his disposal to keep down costs. It has been contended, and apparently with much reason, that if the use of substitutes were prohibited this would not lead to an increased use of domestic barley, inasmuch as the supply of home barley suitable for malting purposes is of a limited nature.
At the same time, it is an undoubted fact that an excessive use of substitutes leads to the production of beer of poor quality.
The maize and rice preparations mostly used in England are practically starch pure and simple, substantially the whole of the oil, water, and other subsidiary constituents of the grain being removed. The germ of maize contains a considerable proportion of an oil of somewhat unpleasant flavour, which has to be eliminated before the material is fit for use in the mash-tun.
After degerming, the maize is unhusked, wetted, submitted to a temperature sufficient to rupture the starch cells, dried, and finally rolled out in a flaky condition.
Rice is similarly treated. The sugars used are chiefly cane sugar, glucose and invert sugar—the latter commonly known as “saccharum. Invert sugar is prepared by the action either of acid or of yeast on cane sugar. The chemical equation representing the conversion or inversion of cane sugar is:—. Invert sugar is so called because the mixture of glucose and fructose which forms the “invert” is laevo-rotatory, whereas cane sugar is dextro-rotatory to the plane of polarized light.
The preparation of invert sugar by the acid process consists in treating the cane sugar in solution with a little mineral acid, removing the excess of the latter by means of chalk, and concentrating to a thick syrup. The yeast process Tompson’s , which makes use of the inverting power of one of the enzymes invertase contained in ordinary yeast, is interesting. When this operation is completed, the whole liquid including the yeast is run into the boiling contents of the copper.
This method is more suited to the preparation of invert in the brewery itself than the acid process, which is almost exclusively used in special sugar works. Glucose, which is one of the constituents of invert sugar, is largely used by itself in brewing.
It is, however, never prepared from invert sugar for this purpose, but directly from starch by means of acid. By the action of dilute boiling acid on starch the latter is rapidly converted first into a mixture of dextrine and maltose and then into glucose.
The proportions of glucose, dextrine and maltose present in a commercial glucose depend very much on the duration of the boiling, the strength of the acid, and the extent of the pressure at which the starch is converted.
In England the materials from which glucose is manufactured are generally sago, rice and purified maize. In Germany potatoes form the most common raw material, and in America purified Indian corn is ordinarily employed. Hop substitutes , as a rule, are very little used.
They mostly consist of quassia, gentian and camomile, and these substitutes are quite harmless per se , but impart an unpleasantly rough and bitter taste to the beer. The light beers in vogue to-day are less alcoholic, more lightly hopped, and more quickly brewed than the beers of the last generation, and in this respect are somewhat less stable and more likely to deteriorate than the latter were. The preservative in part replaces the alcohol and the hop extract, and shortens the brewing time.
The preservatives mostly used are the bisulphites of lime and potash, and these, when employed in small quantities, are generally held to be harmless. Brewing Operations. The malt, which is hoisted to the top floor, after cleaning and grading is conveyed to the Malt Mill , where it is crushed. Thence the ground malt, or “grist” as it is now called, passes to the Grist Hopper , and from the latter to the Mashing Machine , in which it is intimately mixed with hot water from the Hot Liquor Vessel.
From the mashing machine the mixed grist and “liquor” pass to the Mash-Tun , where the starch of the malt is rendered soluble. From the mash-tun the clear wort passes to the Copper , where it is boiled with hops. From the copper the boiled wort passes to the Hop Back , where the insoluble hop constituents are separated from the wort.
From the hop back the wort passes to the Cooler , from the latter to the Refrigerator , thence for the purpose of enabling the revenue officers to assess the duty to the Collecting Vessel ,  and finally to the Fermenting Vessels , in which the wort is transformed into “green” beer. The latter is then cleansed, and finally racked and stored. It will be seen from the above that brewing consists of seven distinct main processes, which may be classed as follows: 1 Grinding; 2 Mashing; 3 Boiling; 4 Cooling; 5 Fermenting; 6 Cleansing; 7 Racking and Storing.
The mills, which exist in a variety of designs, are of the smooth roller type, and are so arranged that the malt is crushed rather than ground.
If the malt is ground too fine, difficulties arise in regard to efficient drainage in the mash-tun and subsequent clarification. On the other hand, if the crushing is too coarse the subsequent extraction of soluble matter in the mash-tun is incomplete, and an inadequate yield results. Mashing is a process which consists mainly in extracting, by means of water at an adequate temperature, the soluble matters pre-existent in the malt, and in converting the insoluble starch and a great part of the insoluble nitrogenous compounds into soluble and partly fermentable products.
Mashing is, without a doubt, the most important of the brewing processes, for it is largely in the mash-tun that the character of the beer to be brewed is determined. In modern practice the malt and the mashing “liquor” i. This is generally a cylindrical metal vessel, commanding the mash-tun and provided with a central shaft and screw. The grist as the crushed malt is called enters the mashing machine from the grist case above, and the liquor is introduced at the back.
The screw is rotated rapidly, and so a thorough mixture of the grist and liquor takes place as they travel along the mashing machine. The mash-tun fig. This arrangement is necessary in order to obtain a proper separation of the “wort” as the liquid portion of the finished mash is called from the spent grains. The mash-tun is also provided with a stirring apparatus the rakes so that the grist and liquor may be intimately mixed D , and an automatic sprinkler, the sparger fig.
The sparger consists of a number of hollow arms radiating from a common centre and pierced by a number of small perforations. The common central vessel from which the sparge-arms radiate is mounted in such a manner that it rotates automatically when a stream of water is admitted, so that a constant fine spray covers the whole tun when the sparger is in operation.
There are also pipes for admitting “liquor” to the bottom of the tun, and for carrying the wort from the latter to the “underback” or “copper. The grist and liquor having been introduced into the tun either by means of the mashing machine or separately , the rakes are set going, so that the mash may become thoroughly homogeneous, and after a short time the rakes are stopped and the mash allowed to rest, usually for a period of about two hours.
After this, “taps are set”— i. In this manner the whole of the wort or extract is separated from the grains. The quantity of water employed is, in all, from two to three barrels to the quarter lb of malt. In considering the process of mashing, one might almost say the process of brewing, it is essential to remember that the type and quality of the beer to be produced see Malt depends almost entirely a on the kind of malt employed, and b on the mashing temperature.
In other words, quality may be controlled on the kiln or in the mash-tun, or both. Viewed in this light, the following theoretical methods for preparing different types of beer are possible:— 1 high kiln heats and high mashing temperatures; 2 high kiln heats and low mashing temperatures; 3 low kiln heats and high mashing temperatures; and 4 low kiln heats and low mashing temperatures. In practice all these combinations, together with many intermediate ones, are met with, and it is not too much to say that the whole science of modern brewing is based upon them.
It is plain, then, that the mashing temperature will depend on the kind of beer that is to be produced, and on the kind of malt employed. The effect of higher temperatures is chiefly to cripple the enzyme or “ferment” diastase, which, as already said, is the agent which converts the insoluble starch into soluble dextrin, sugar and intermediate products.
The higher the mashing temperature, the more the diastase will be crippled in its action, and the more dextrinous non-fermentable matter as compared with maltose fermentable sugar will be formed. A pale or stock ale, which is a type of beer that must be “dry” and that will keep, requires to contain a relatively high proportion of dextrin and little maltose, and, in its preparation, therefore, a high mashing temperature will be employed.
On the other hand, a mild running ale, which is a full, sweet beer, intended for rapid consumption, will be obtained by means of low mashing temperatures, which produce relatively little dextrin, but a good deal of maltose, i.
Diastase is not the only enzyme present in malt. There is also a ferment which renders a part of the nitrogenous matter soluble. This again is affected by temperature in much the same way as diastase.
Low heats tend to produce much non-coagulable [v. With regard to the kind of malt and other materials employed in producing various types of beer, pale ales are made either from pale malt generally a mixture of English and fine foreign, such as Smyrna, California only, or from pale malt and a little flaked maize, rice, invert sugar or glucose.
Running beers mild ale are made from a mixture of pale and amber malts, sugar and flaked goods; stout, from a mixture of pale, amber and roasted black malts only, or with the addition of a little sugar or flaked maize. When raw grain is employed, the process of mashing is slightly modified. The maize, rice or other grain is usually gelatinized in a vessel called a converter or cooker entirely separated from the mash-tun, by means of steam at a relatively high temperature, mostly with, but occasionally without, the addition of some malt meal.
After about half an hour the gelatinized mass is mixed with the main mash, and this takes place shortly before taps are set. This is possible inasmuch as the starch, being already in a highly disintegrated condition, is very rapidly converted. By working on the limited-decoction system see below , it is possible to make use of a fair percentage of raw grain in the mash-tun proper, thus doing away with the “converter” entirely.
The Filter Press Process. This entails loss of extract in several ways. To begin with, the sparging process is at best a somewhat inefficient method for washing out the last portions of the wort, and again, when the malt is at all hard or “steely,” starch conversion is by no means complete. These disadvantages are overcome by the filter press process, which was first introduced into Great Britain by the Belgian engineer P. The malt, in this method of brewing, is ground quite fine, and although an ordinary mash-tun may be used for mashing, the separation of the clear wort from the solid matter takes place in the filter press, which retains the very finest particles with ease.
It is also a simple matter to wash out the wort from the filter cake in the presses, and experience has shown that markedly increased yields are thus obtained. In the writer’s opinion, there is little doubt that in the future this, or a similar process, will find a very wide application. If it is not possible to arrange the plant so that the coppers are situated beneath the mash-tuns as is the case in breweries arranged on the gravitation system , an intermediate collecting vessel the underback is interposed, and from this the wort is pumped into the copper.
The latter is a large copper vessel heated by direct fire or steam. Modern coppers are generally closed in with a dome-shaped head, but many old-fashioned open coppers are still to be met with, in fact pale-ale brewers prefer open coppers. In the closed type the wort is frequently boiled under slight pressure. When the wort has been raised to the boil, the hops or a part thereof are added, and the boiling is continued generally from an hour to three hours, according to the type of beer.
At least three distinct substances are extracted from the hops in boiling. First, the hop tannin , which, combining with a part of the proteids derived from the malt, precipitates them; second, the hop resin , which acts as a preservative and bitter; third, the hop oil , to which much of the fine aroma of beer is due. The latter is volatile, and it is customary, therefore, not to add the whole of the hops to the wort when it commences to boil, but to reserve about a third until near the end of the copper stage.
The quantity of hops employed varies according to the type of beer, from about 3 lb to 15 lb per quarter lb of malt. For mild ales and porters about 3 to 4 lb, for light pale ales and light stouts 6 to 10 lb, and for strong ales and stouts 9 to 15 lb of hops are employed. A hop back is a wooden or metal vessel, fitted with a false bottom of perforated plates; the latter retain the spent hops, the wort being drawn off into the coolers. After resting for a brief period in the hop back, the bright wort is run into the coolers.
The cooler is a very shallow vessel of great area, and the result of the exposure of the hot wort to a comparatively large volume of air is that a part of the hop constituents and other substances contained in the wort are rendered insoluble and are precipitated. It was formerly considered absolutely essential that this hot aeration should take place, but in many breweries nowadays coolers are not used, the wort being run direct from the hop back to the refrigerator.
There is much to be said for this procedure, as the exposure of hot wort in the cooler is attended with much danger of bacterial and wild yeast infection, but it is still a moot point whether the cooler or its equivalent can be entirely dispensed with for all classes of beers.
A rational alteration would appear to be to place the cooler in an air-tight chamber supplied with purified and sterilized air.
This principle has already been applied to the refrigerator, and apparently with success. In America the cooler is frequently replaced by a cooling tank, an enclosed vessel of some depth, capable of artificial aeration. It is not practicable, in any case, to cool the wort sufficiently on the cooler to bring it to the proper temperature for the fermentation stage, and for this purpose, therefore, the refrigerator is employed. There are several kinds of refrigerators, the main distinction being that some are vertical, others horizontal; but the principle in each case is much the same, and consists in allowing a thin film or stream of wort to trickle over a series of pipes through which cold water circulates.
By the action of living yeast cells see Fermentation the sugar contained in the wort is split up into alcohol and carbonic acid, and a number of subsidiary reactions occur.
There are two main systems of fermentation, the top fermentation system, which is that employed in the United Kingdom, and the bottom fermentation system, which is that used for the production of beers of the continental “lager” type. After a few hours a slight froth or scum makes its appearance on the surface of the liquid. At the end of a further short period this develops into a light curly mass cauliflower or curly head , which gradually becomes lighter and more solid in appearance, and is then known as rocky head.
This in its turn shrinks to a compact mass—the yeasty head —which emits great bubbles of gas with a hissing sound. At this point the cleansing of the beer— i. A In a the Skimming System the fermentation from start to finish takes place in wooden vessels termed “squares” or “rounds” , fitted with an attemperator and a parachute or other similar skimming device for removing or “skimming” the yeast at the end of the fermentation fig.
The principle of b the Dropping System is that the beer undergoes only the main fermentation in the “round” or “square,” and is then dropped down into a second vessel or vessels, in which fermentation and cleansing are completed.
The ponto system of dropping, which is now somewhat old-fashioned, consists in discharging the beer into a series of vat-like vessels, fitted with a peculiarly-shaped overflow lip. The yeast works its way out of the vessel over the lip, and then flows into a gutter and is collected. The pontos are kept filled with beer by means of a vessel placed at a higher level.
In the ordinary dropping system the partly fermented beer is let down from the “squares” and “rounds” into large vessels, termed dropping or skimming “backs. As a rule the parachute covers the whole width of the back. A series of casks, supplied with beer at the cleansing stage from a feed vessel, are mounted so that they may rotate axially. Each cask is fitted with an attemperator, a pipe and cock at the base for the removal of the finished beer and “bottoms,” and lastly with a swan neck fitting through a bung-hole and commanding a common gutter.
This system yields excellent results for certain classes of beers, and many Burton brewers think it is essential for obtaining [v. B The Stone Square System , which is only used to a certain extent exclusively in the north of England , practically consists in pumping the fermenting wort from one to the other of two superimposed square vessels, connected with one another by means of a man-hole and a valve.
These squares are built of stone and kept very cool. At the end of the fermentation the yeast after closing the man-hole is removed from the top square. It is usual to add some hops in cask this is called dry hopping in the case of many of the better beers.
Running beers, which must be put into condition rapidly, or beers that have become flat, are generally primed. Priming consists in adding a small quantity of sugar solution to the beer in cask.
This rapidly ferments and so produces “condition. Finings generally consist of a solution or semi-solution of isinglass in sour beer, or in a solution of tartaric acid or of sulphurous acid. After the finings are added to the beer and the barrels have been well rolled, the finings slowly precipitate or work out through the bung-hole and carry with them the matter which would otherwise render the beer turbid.
It is generally admitted that the special brew, matured by storage and an adequate secondary fermentation, produces the best beer for bottling, but the modern taste for a very light and bright bottled beer at a low cost has necessitated the introduction of new methods. The most interesting among these is the “chilling” and “carbonating” system. In this the beer, when it is ripe for racking, is first “chilled,” that is, cooled to a very low temperature.
As a result, there is an immediate deposition of much matter which otherwise would require prolonged time to settle. The beer is then filtered and so rendered quite bright, and finally, in order to produce immediate “condition,” is “carbonated,” i. Foreign Brewing and Beers. The Dickmaische , as this portion is called, is then raised to the boil, and the ebullition sustained between a quarter and three-quarters of an hour. The wort, after boiling with hops and cooling, much as in the English system, is subjected to the peculiar system of fermentation called bottom fermentation.
In this system the “pitching” and fermentation take place at a very low temperature and, compared with the English system, in very small vessels. The yeast, which is of a different type from that employed in the English system, remains at the bottom of the fermenting tun, and hence is derived the name of “bottom fermentation” see Fermentation.
The primary fermentation lasts about eleven to twelve days as compared with three days on the English system , and the beer is then run into store lager casks where it remains at a temperature approaching the freezing-point of water for six weeks to six months, according to the time of the year and the class of the beer. As to the relative character and stability of decoction and infusion beers, the latter are, as a rule, more alcoholic; but the former contain more unfermented malt extract, and are therefore, broadly speaking, more nutritive.
Beers of the German type are less heavily hopped and more peptonized than English beers, and more highly charged with carbonic acid, which, owing to the low fermentation and storing temperatures, is retained for a comparatively long time and keeps the beer in condition. On the other hand, infusion beers are of a more stable and stimulating character.
It is impossible to keep “lager” beer on draught in the ordinary sense of the term in England. It will not keep unless placed on ice, and, as a matter of fact, the “condition” of lager is dependent to a far greater extent on the methods of distribution and storage than is the case with infusion beers. If a cask is opened it must be rapidly consumed; indeed it becomes undrinkable within a very few hours. The gas escapes rapidly when the pressure is released, the temperature rises, and the beer becomes flat and mawkish.
In Germany every publican is bound to have an efficient supply of ice, the latter frequently being delivered by the brewery together with the beer. In America the common system of brewing is one of infusion mashing combined with bottom fermentation. The method of mashing, however, though on infusion lines, differs appreciably from the English process.
The very low initial heat, and the employment of relatively large quantities of readily transformable malt adjuncts, enable the American brewer to make use of a class of malt which would be considered quite unfit for brewing in an English brewery. The system of fermentation is very similar to the continental “lager” system, and the beer obtained bears some resemblance to the German product.
To the English palate it is somewhat flavourless, but it is always retailed in exceedingly brilliant condition and at a proper temperature. There can be little doubt that every nation evolves a type of beer most suited to its climate and the temperament of the people, and in this respect the modern American beer is no exception. In regard to plant and mechanical arrangements generally, the modern American breweries may serve as an object-lesson to the European brewer, although there are certainly a number of breweries in the United Kingdom which need not fear comparison with the best American plants.
It is a sign of the times and further evidence as to the growing taste for a lighter type of beer, that lager brewing in its most modern form has now fairly taken root in Great Britain, and in this connexion the process introduced by Messrs Allsopp exhibits many features of interest. The following is a brief description of the plant and the methods employed:—The wort is prepared on infusion lines, and is then cooled by means of refrigerated brine before passing to a temporary store tank, which serves as a gauging vessel.
From the latter the wort passes directly to the fermenting tuns, huge closed cylindrical vessels made of sheet-steel and coated with glass enamel. There the wort ferments under reduced pressure, the carbonic acid generated being removed by means of a vacuum pump, and the gas thus withdrawn is replaced by the introduction of cool sterilized air. The yeast employed is a pure culture see Fermentation bottom yeast, but the withdrawal of the products of yeast metabolism and the constant supply of pure fresh air cause the fermentation to proceed far more rapidly than is the case with lager beer brewed on ordinary lines.
It is, in fact, finished in about six days. The gases evolved are allowed to collect under pressure, so that the beer is thoroughly charged with the carbonic acid necessary to give it condition. Finally the beer is again cooled, filtered, racked and bottled, the whole of these operations taking place under counter pressure, so that no gas can escape; indeed, from the time the wort leaves the copper to the moment when it is bottled in the shape of beer, it does not come into contact with the outer air.
The first stage consists in the preparation of Koji , which is obtained by treating steamed rice with a culture of Aspergillus oryzae. This micro-organism converts the starch into sugar. The Koji is converted into moto by adding it to a thin paste of fresh-boiled starch in a vat. Fermentation is set up and lasts for 30 to 40 days. This is a major release with new features and some improvement.
Posted by, Eeli Kaikkonen The long anticipated Windows version is finally mature enough to get a public release. Posted by, Osk From the MacSword site : Finally, after more than a year of development, the next generation of MacSword has arrived. Posted by, Eeli Kaikkonen BibleTime news hasn’t kept up with releases. Posted by, Brian Fernandes FireBible 1 has been released. More details about this release are available here or go directly to the FireBible website to download.
Posted by, scribe Are you interested in ancient manuscripts of the NT? Do you have the skills it takes to recognize what Greek text is on a manuscript page? Are you looking for a wonderful project where you can volunteer your time for a very worthwhile cause? If YES to all of the above, please read on. CrossWire has been working on a basic manuscript indexing tool that will help volunteers help CSNTM index all of their images. Sometimes they will have a PDF already containing Scriptural coverage of their images for a document– these only require transfer of information from the PDF to the index tool.
You might want to find a document with a small number of images, to start. Fill in any meta information– much of this can be obtained from the CSNTM information about this document– and click [Save]. Click on the first thumbnail to popup the image viewer, zoom in, and using your research and your keen Greek skills, determine and enter the Biblical coverage of this page, e.
Be sure to hit the [Save] button for this image, and then move on to the next. This indexing project will provide the means to manipulate these images usefully from our software and for other projects, and will provide the world with easily accessible evidence attesting to the reliability of the New Testament. I am really excited about this project and about collaborating together with you all and CSNTM on this work! May God make use of these efforts to draw people to Himself.
For full details and downloads, please check the Alkitab website. Grab the new modules via your favorite front end’s module installer or from their download pages: SweFolk : Svenska Folkbibeln SweOf : Ordf For full details and downloads, check the Alkitab website. Posted by, Osk MacSword 2 has been announced and a beta is available for download. For the full announcement, including links to some screenshots and the download itself, visit our MacSword forum.
Posted by, Osk GnomeSword has been renamed Xiphos, and the latest version is now available for download directly from the new Xiphos website. Posted by, Osk BibleTime 1. Some of the improvements in the latest edition include: Bookshelf Manager installer has been redesigned. It’s much easier to use and it doesn’t block the rest of the user interface. The main Bookshelf panel has been rewritten.
Rarely used works can be hidden. Bookmarks have been moved to another tab. It’s possible to move and copy folders. Bible and Commentary windows have dropdown lists for book, chapter and verse. For complete details, see the BibleTime webpage. Smartphone support is planned for the future. More details and the download itself are available at the SwordReader website.
Kempis Many thanks go to the volunteers who produce and submit content such as this. Posted by, Osk A full Sword interface that runs inside your Firefox browser, FireBible’s latest release is out. Version 0. Check it out at the FireBible page. Posted by, refdoc On the 19th December, BpBible , a cross platform frontend, version 0. New features include improved searching including proximity searches , tagging of text passages, and much more.
Posted by, tee Not really new, but GnomeSword 2. Look for a Windows port soon! Posted by, refdoc Not so totally fresh news: BibleDesktop 1. Posted by, Osk CrossWire is happy to announce the immediate availability of an RSS news feed , compatible with all of the most popular news readers like Google Reader and the readers built into popular browsers like Firefox, IE7, and Opera. Posted by, scribe The newest revision of The SWORD Project– supporting all the latest new and cool modules, and touting fabulously useful new features– is now available for public consumption.
End users, you should see your favourite frontend updated and available soon. And as an added bonus, you can visually compare 2 or more Bibles of the same language. See the JSword Change Log for more details and other improvements. You can download it from here. This release completes our support for all Sword modules, except Personal Commentary.
See the JSword Change Log for more details. Posted by, Joachim BibleTime 1. It contains several important bugfixes. Posted by, tee Merry Christmas from the GnomeSword development team! Release 2. GnomeSword builds on the support of Crosswire Bible Society’s cross-platform open source tools for scriptural study, to provide a high-quality study environment for those working within the GNOME desktop. This stable release is the culmination of the extended 2. Check it out here. Posted by, scribe We are pleased to announce that bible.
Some of the more noticeable new features include: the ability to create a search index on a text which will allow very fast and more powerful searching. This update diligently compared the text to other e-texts and differences were validated against a hardcopy of the “Old Scofield Study Bible”.
All known encoding errors were fixed. You can read more about the changes here. Posted by, Joachim The German publisher Brunnen decided to release their excellent, modern translation “Hoffnung f While it has been a long time since our last release, we have been active.
Since the last release we have been working on small bugs and features to make BibleDesktop more fun. Share it with your friends. Join the BibleDesktop user’s mailing list and tell us what you think. Over the next week or so we will be updating the documentation on the website to match the release.
Posted by, Joachim A new bugfix release for the Linux Bible study program BibleTime has been released today. Version 1. It also contains some minor improvements to the user interface.
See the file Changelog in the source code package for more details. Posted by, scribe Our apologies for the long downtime. Seems a network card in our server went bad and we had some trouble getting a qualified local engineer down to fix it up.
All should be well again, by God’s mercies. Posted by, Joachim BibleTime’s second release candidate for the upcoming version 1. BibleTime is a Bible study application for Linux systems. Posted by, Martin Gruner For all who can work with Hebrew, there is an update of the Westminster Leningrad Codex module available.
Posted by, Joachim Today the BibleTime developers released the first release candidate for the upcoming version 1. Please see www. BibleTime is a Bible study program for Linux systems. May God use it mightily for His Glory! The Hungarian Bible society kindly granted permissions to Crosswire to offer the module as a download.
This release represents the largest set of changes to date. Many, many new features. Usability and performance is greatly improved. For more information you can go to the BibleDesktop home page. For info on what’s new you can read about it here. Posted by, Scribe Bible Software vendors from around the globe are jointly sponsoring a cooperative User Survey to glean from Bible Software Users worldwide their needs, requests, and dreams. Help us enhance our offerings to the community in a meaningful way that specifically addresses your areas of interest, and seed the discussions for features in the next generation of Bible Software.
Please invest the time to take the survey here. Posted by, Joachim A new Lithuanian Bible module was released today. The module was prepared by Linas Spraunius.
Crosswire received the permssion from the copyright holder to make the module available as a download. Instead we proudly offer the new WLC module. Read the description for details. Please say thank you to Kirk Lowery klowery at whi dot wts dot edu from WHI for granting us access to this excellent text, and also to Christopher V.
Kimball kimball at ntplx dot net for allowing me to modify his outstanding conversion program. Posted by, Joachim A new module, the english Jubilee Bible, was added today. An excerpt of the module information: This material was translated from Spanish into English by Russell M. Posted by, lefticus The first official release of BibleStudy was completed yesterday. The release is a little rough around the edges but is quite usable.
It supports viewing books in parallel, all types of sword modules, tabs, frames and multiple windows. A screen shot and some more info is available from: here. Windows users can download from: here. Source is available from: here. Gentoo users will be able to ’emerge biblestudy’ shortly. And here’s now mystery and hieroglyphic. Wednesday, April 4, 1.
Cartwright, prithee speak that a little louder, and with a hoarse voice. I am the bold Thunder: pshaw! Speak it me in a voice that thunders it out indeed: I am the bold Thunder. Angels and Ministers of Grace defend us! Why the Sepulchre, Wherein we saw thee quietly inurn’d, Hath op’d his ponderous and marble Jaws To cast thee up again?
What may this mean? Friday, April 27, 1. It is the grandest and finest thing that has ever been imagined and executed. The conversions effected by the dragoons were much more sudden than those effected by the priests. Sometimes a hundred or more persons were converted by a single troop within an hour. In this way Murillac converted thousands of persons in a week. The regiment p. De Noailles was very successful in his conversions. He converted Nismes in twenty-four hours; the day after he converted Montpellier; and he promised in a few weeks to deliver all Lower Languedoc from the leprosy of heresy.
In one of his dispatches soon after the Revocation, he boasted that he had converted nobility and gentry, 54 ministers, and 25, individuals of various classes. The quickness of the conversions effected by the dragoons is easily to be accounted for.
The principal cause was the free quartering of soldiers in the houses of the Protestants. The soldiers knew what was the object for which they were thus quartered. They lived freely in all ways. They drank, swore, shouted, beat the heretics, insulted their women, and subjected them to every imaginable outrage and insult. One of their methods of making converts was borrowed from the persecutions of the Vaudois. It consisted in forcing the feet of the intended converts into boots full of boiling grease, or they would hang them up by the feet, sometimes forgetting to cut them down until they were dead.
They would also force them to drink water perpetually, or make them sit under a slow dripping upon their heads until they died of madness. Sometimes they placed burning coals in their hands, or used an instrument of torture resembling that known in Scotland as the thumbscrews. They were kept there without the usual allowance of straw, and almost without food.
In winter they had no fire, and at night no lamp. Though ill, they had no doctors. Besides the gaoler, their only visitors were priests and monks, entreating them to make abjuration. Of course many died in prison—feeble women, and aged and infirm men.
In the society of obscene criminals, with whom many were imprisoned, they prayed for speedy deliverance by death, and death often came to their help. More agreeable, but still more insulting, methods of conversion were also attempted.
Louis tried to bribe the pastors by offering them an increase of annual pay beyond their former stipends. If there were a Protestant judge or advocate, Louvois at once endeavoured to bribe him over. For instance, there was a heretical syndic of Strasbourg, to whom Louvois wrote, “Will you be converted?
I will give you 6, livres of pension. I will dismiss you. Of course many of the efforts made to convert the Huguenots proved successful. The orders of the Prime Minister, the free quarters afforded to the dragoons, the preachings and threatenings of the clergy, all contributed to terrify the Protestants.
The fear of being sent to the galleys for life—the threat of losing the whole of one’s goods and property—the alarm of seeing one’s household broken up, the children seized by the priests and sent to the nearest monkery or nunnery for maintenance and education—all these considerations doubtless had their effect in increasing the number of conversions.
Persecution is not easy to bear. To have all the powers and authorities employed against one’s p. And torture, whether it be slow or sudden, is what many persons, by reason of their physical capacity, have not the power to resist. Even the slow torment of dragoons quartered in the houses of the heretics—their noise and shoutings, their drinking and roistering, the insults and outrages they were allowed to practise—was sufficient to compel many at once to declare themselves to be converted.
Indeed, pain is, of all things, one of the most terrible of converters. One of the prisoners condemned to the galleys, when he saw the tortures which the victims about him had to endure by night and by day, said that sufferings such as these were “enough to make one conform to Buddhism or Mahommedanism as well as to Popery”; and doubtless it was force and suffering which converted the Huguenots, far more than love of the King or love of the Pope. By all these means—forcible, threatening, insulting, and bribing—employed for the conversion of the Huguenots, the Catholics boasted that in the space of three months they had received an accession of five hundred thousand new converts to the Church of Rome.
But the “new converts” did not gain much by their change. They were forced to attend mass, but remained suspected. Even the dragoons who converted them, called them dastards and deniers of their faith. They tried, if they could, to avoid confession, but confess they must.
There was the fine, confiscation of goods, and imprisonment at the priest’s back. Places were set apart for them in the churches, where they were penned up like lepers.
A person was stationed at the door with a roll of their names, to which they were obliged to answer. During the service, p. They were also required to partake of the Host, which Protestants regarded as an awful mockery of the glorious Godhead. Such is the general abomination born of flattery and cruelty. From torture to abjuration, and from that to the communion, there were only twenty-four hours’ distance; and the executioners were the conductors of the converts, and their witnesses.
Those who in the end appeared to have become reconciled, when more at leisure did not fail, by their flight or their behaviour, to contradict their pretended conversion. Indeed, many of the new converts, finding life in France to be all but intolerable, determined to follow the example of the Huguenots who had already fled, and took the first opportunity of disposing of their goods and leaving the country.
One of the first things they did on reaching a foreign soil, was to attend a congregation p. Not many pastors abjured. A few who yielded in the first instance through terror and stupor, almost invariably returned to their ancient faith. They were offered considerable pensions if they would conform and become Catholics. The King promised to augment their income by one-third, and if they became advocates or doctors in law, to dispense with their three years’ study, and with the right of diploma.
At length, most of the pastors had left the country. About seven hundred had gone into Switzerland, Holland, Prussia, England, and elsewhere. A few remained going about to meetings of the peasantry, at the daily risk of death; for every pastor taken was hung. A reward of 5, livres was promised to whoever should take a pastor, or cause him to be taken.
The punishment of death was also pronounced against all persons who should be discovered attending such meetings. Nevertheless, meetings of the Protestants continued to be held, with pastors or without. They were, for the most part, held at night, amidst the ruins of their pulled-down temples. But this exposed them to great danger, for spies were on the alert to inform upon them and have them apprehended. They were, however, often surprised, cut to pieces by the dragoons, who hung part of the prisoners on the neighbouring trees, and took the others to prison, from whence they were sent to the galleys, or hung on the nearest public gibbet.
Fulcran Rey was one of the most celebrated of the early victims. He was a native of Nismes, twenty-four years old. He had just completed his theological studies; but there were neither synods to receive him to pastoral ordination, nor temples for him to preach in. The only reward he could earn by proceeding on his mission was death, yet he determined to preach. The first assemblies he joined were in the neighbourhood of Nismes, where his addresses were interrupted by assaults of the dragoons.
The dangers to his co-religionaries were too great in the neighbourhood of this populous town; and he next went to Castres and the Vaunage; after which he accepted an invitation to proceed into the less populous districts of the Cevennes.
He felt the presentiment of death upon him in accepting the invitation; but he went, leaving behind him a letter to his father, saying that he was willing, if necessary, to give his life for the cause of truth. His apostolate was short but glorious. He went from village to village in the Cevennes, collected the old worshippers together, prayed and preached to them, p.
He remained at this work for about six weeks, when a spy who accompanied him—one whom he had regarded as sincere a Huguenot as himself—informed against him for the royal reward, and delivered him over to the dragoons.
Rey was at first thrown into prison at Anduze, when, after a brief examination by the local judge, he was entrusted to thirty soldiers, to be conveyed to Alais.
There he was subjected to further examination, avowing that he had preached wherever he had found faithful people ready to hear him. At Nismes, he was told that he had broken the law, in preaching contrary to the King’s will. Do with me what you will; I am ready to die. The priests, the judges, and other persons of influence endeavoured to induce him to change his opinions.
Promises of great favours were offered him if he would abjure; and when the intendant Baville informed him of the frightful death before him if he refused, he replied, “My life is not of value to me, provided I gain Christ. He was ordered to be put to the torture.
He was still unshaken. Then he was delivered over to the executioner. On his way to the place of execution, two monks walked by his side to induce him to relent, and to help him to die. I see before me the ladder which leads to heaven. The monks wished to mount the ladder with him.
I have assistance enough from God to take the last step of my journey. But the authorities had arranged beforehand that this should be prevented. When he opened his mouth, a roll of military drums muffled his voice. His radiant look and gestures spoke for him. A few minutes more, and he was dead; and when the paleness of death spread over his face, it still bore the reflex of joy and peace in which he had expired.
It was thought that the public hanging of a pastor would put a stop to all further ministrations among the Huguenots. But the sight of the bodies of their brethren hung on the nearest trees, and the heads of their pastors rolling on the scaffold, did not deter them from continuing to hold religious meetings in solitary places, more especially in Languedoc, Viverais, and the provinces in the south-east of France.
Between the year , when Fulcran Rey was hanged at Beaucaire, and the year , when Claude Brousson was hanged at Montpellier, not fewer than seventeen pastors were publicly executed; namely, three at Nismes, two at St. Hippolyte and Marsillargues in the Cevennes, and twelve on the Peyrou at Montpellier—the public place on which Protestant Christians in the South of France were then principally executed. There has been some discussion lately as to the p.
It has been held that the St. Bartholomew Massacre was only a political squabble, begun by the Huguenots, in which they got the worst of it. The number of persons killed on the occasion has been reduced to a very small number. It has been doubted whether the Pope had anything to do with the medal struck at Rome, bearing the motto Ugonottorum Strages “Massacre of the Huguenots” , with the Pope’s head on one side, and an angel on the other pursuing and slaying a band of flying heretics.
Whatever may be said of the massacre of St. Bartholomew, there can be no mistake about the persecutions which preceded and followed the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. They were continued for more than half a century, and had the effect of driving from France about a million of the best, most vigorous, and industrious of Frenchmen.
In the single province of Languedoc, not less than a hundred thousand persons according to Boulainvilliers were destroyed by premature death, one-tenth of whom perished by fire, strangulation, or the wheel. It could not be said that Louis XIV. The proclamations, edicts and laws published against the Huguenots were known to all Frenchmen. Charles Coquerel, “a horror of p. Will foreigners believe it, that France observed a code of laws framed in the same infernal spirit, which maintained a perpetual St.
Bartholomew’s day in this country for about sixty years! If they cannot call us the most barbarous of people, their judgment will be well founded in pronouncing us the most inconsistent. He takes a much more patriotic view of the French people.
He cannot believe them to have been wilfully guilty of the barbarities which the French Government committed upon the Huguenots. It was the King, the priests, and the courtiers only! But he forgets that these upper barbarians were supported by the soldiers and the people everywhere. He adds, however, that if the Revocation were popular, “it would be the most overwhelming accusation against the Church of Rome, that it had thus educated and fashioned France.
To give an account in detail of the varieties of cruelty inflicted on the Huguenots, and of the agonies to which they were subjected for many years before and after the passing of the Act of Revocation, would occupy too much space, besides being tedious through the mere repetition of like horrors. But in order to condense such an account, we think it will be more interesting if we endeavour to give a brief history of the state of France at that time, in connection with the biography of one of the most celebrated Huguenots of his period, both in his life, his piety, his trials, and his endurance—that of Claude Brousson, the advocate, the pastor, and the martyr of Languedoc.
Claude Brousson was born at Nismes in He was designed by his parents for the profession of the law, and prosecuted his studies at the college of his native town, where he graduated as Doctor of Laws. He commenced his professional career about the time when Louis XIV. Protestant advocates were not yet forbidden to practise, but they already laboured under many disabilities.
He continued, however, for some time to exercise his profession, with much ability, at p. He was frequently employed in defending Protestant pastors, and in contesting the measures for suppressing their congregations and levelling their churches under existing edicts, some time before the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes had been finally resolved upon. Thus, in , he was engaged in disputing the process instituted against the ministers and elders of the church at Nismes, with the view of obtaining an order for the demolition of the remaining Protestant temple of that city.
Peyrol, one of the ministers. Brousson defended the case, observing, at the conclusion of his speech, that the number of Protestants was very great at Nismes; that the ministers could not be personally acquainted with all the people, and especially with occasional visitors and strangers; that the ministers were quite unacquainted with the girl, or that she professed the Roman Catholic religion: “facts which rendered it probable that she was sent to the temple for the purpose of furnishing an occasion for the prosecution.
Another process was instituted during the same year p. The pretext for destroying the latter was of a singular character. A Protestant pastor, M. Paulet, had been bribed into embracing the Roman Catholic religion, in reward for which he was appointed counsellor to the Presidial Court of Montpellier. But his wife and one of his daughters refused to apostatize with him.
The daughter, though only between ten and eleven years old, was sent to a convent at Teirargues, where, after enduring considerable persecution, she persisted in her steadfastness, and was released after a twelvemonth’s confinement. Five years later she was again seized and sent to another convent; but, continuing immovable against the entreaties and threats of the abbess and confessor, she was again set at liberty. An apostate priest, however, who had many years before renounced the Protestant faith, and become director and confessor of the nuns at Teirargues, forged two documents; the one to show that while at the convent, Mdlle.
Paulet had consented to embrace the Catholic religion, and the other containing her formal abjuration. It was alleged that her abjuration had been signified to Isaac Dubourdieu, of Montpellier, one of the most distinguished pastors of the French Church; but that, nevertheless, he had admitted her to the sacrament.
This, if true, was contrary to law; upon which the Catholic clergy laid information against the pastor and the young lady before the Parliament of Toulouse, when they obtained sentence of imprisonment against the former, and the penance of amende honorable against the latter. The demolition of temples was the usual consequence p. The Duc de Noailles, lieutenant-general of the province, entered the city on the 16th of October, , accompanied by a strong military force; and at a sitting of the Assembly of the States which shortly followed, the question of demolishing the Protestant temple at Montpellier was brought under consideration.
Four of the Protestant pastors and several of the elders had before waited upon De Noailles to claim a respite until they should have submitted their cause to the King in Council.
The request having been refused, one of the deputation protested against the illegality of the proceedings, and had the temerity to ask his excellency whether he was aware that there were eighteen hundred thousand Protestant families in France? Upon which the Duke, turning to the officer of his guard, said, “Whilst we wait to see what will become of these eighteen hundred thousand Protestant families, will you please conduct these gentlemen to the citadel?
The great temple of Montpellier was destroyed immediately on receipt of the King’s royal mandate. It required the destruction of the place within twenty-four hours; “but you will give me pleasure,” added the King, in a letter to De Noailles, “if you accomplish it in two. It was, perhaps, scarcely necessary, after the temple had been destroyed, to make any effort to justify these high-handed proceedings.
But Mdlle. Paulet, on whose pretended conversion to Catholicism the proceedings had been instituted, was now requested to admit the authenticity of the documents. She was still p. Of course the documents were forged; but they had answered their purpose. The Protestant temple of Montpellier lay in ruins, and Isabeau de Paulet was recommitted to prison. On hearing of this incident, Brousson remarked, “This is what is called instituting a process against persons after they have been condemned”—a sort of “Jedwood justice.
The repetition of these cases of persecution—the demolition of their churches, and the suppression of their worship—led the Protestants of the Cevennes, Viverais, and Dauphiny to combine for the purpose of endeavouring to stem the torrent of injustice.
With this object, a meeting of twenty-eight deputies took place in the house of Brousson, at Toulouse, in the month of May, As the Assembly of the States were about to take steps to demolish the Protestant temple at Montauban and other towns in the south, and as Brousson was the well-known advocate of the persecuted, the deputies were able to meet at his house to conduct their deliberations, without exciting the jealousy of the priests and the vigilance of the police.
What the meeting of Protestant deputies recommended to their brethren was embodied in a measure, which was afterwards known as “The Project.
At the same time, Brousson drew up a petition to the Sovereign, humbly requesting him to grant permission to the Huguenots to worship God in peace after their consciences, copies of which were sent to Louvois and the other ministers of State.
On this and other petitions, Brousson observes, “Surely all the world and posterity will be surprised, that so many respectful petitions, so many complaints of injuries, and so many solid reasons urged for their removal, produced no good result whatever in favour of the Protestants. The members of the churches which had been interdicted, and whose temples had been demolished, were accordingly invited to assemble in private, in the neighbouring fields or woods—not in public places, nor around the ruins of their ancient temples—for the purpose of worshipping God, exciting each other to piety by prayer and singing, receiving instruction, and celebrating the Lord’s Supper.
Various meetings were accordingly held, in the following month of July, in the Cevennes and Viverais. At St. The dragoons were at once sent to St. Hypolite to put an end to these meetings, and to “convert” the Protestants. The town was almost wholly Protestant. The troops were quartered in numbers in every house; and the people soon became “new converts.
Germain, Vigan, and Ganges were as full of them as St. Hypolite—may be inferred from the items charged upon the inhabitants of St. Hypolite alone  :—. Meetings of the persecuted were also held, under the terms of “The Project,” in Viverais and Dauphiny. These meetings having been repeated for several weeks, the priests of the respective districts called upon their bishops for help to put down this heretical display. The p. On their arrival, the troops were scattered over the country, to watch and suppress any meetings that might be held.
The first took place on the 8th of August, at Chateaudouble, a manufacturing village in Drome. The assembly was surprised by a troop of dragoons; but most of the congregation contrived to escape. Those who were taken were hung upon the nearest trees.
Another meeting was held about a fortnight later at Bezaudun, which was attended by many persons from Bourdeaux, a village about half a league distant. While the meeting was at prayer, intelligence was brought that the dragoons had entered Bourdeaux, and that it was a scene of general pillage.
The Bourdeaux villagers at once set out for the protection of their families. The troopers met them, and suddenly fell upon them. A few of the villagers were armed, but the principal part defended themselves with stones. Of course they were overpowered; many were killed by the sword, and those taken prisoners were immediately hanged. A few, who took to flight, sheltered themselves in a barn, where the soldiers found them, set fire to the place, and murdered them as they endeavoured to escape from the flames.
One young man was taken prisoner, David Chamier,  son of an advocate, and p. He was taken to the neighbouring town of Montelimar, and, after a summary trial, he was condemned to be broken to death upon the wheel.
The sentence was executed before his father’s door; but the young man bore his frightful tortures with astonishing courage. He appointed Marshal Saint-Ruth commander of the district—a man who was a stranger to mercy, who breathed only carnage, and who, because of his ferocity, was known as “The Scourge of the Heretics.
The instructions Saint-Ruth received from Louvois were these: “Amnesty has no longer any place for the Viverais, who continue in rebellion after having been informed of the King’s gracious designs.
In one word, you are to cause such a desolation in that country that its example may restrain all other Huguenots, and may teach them how dangerous it is to rebel against the King. This was a work quite congenial to Saint-Ruth  —rushing p. Tracking the Protestants in this way was like “a hunt in a great enclosure. If they were unable to fly, they met death upon their knees. Antoine Court recounts meetings in which as many as between three and four hundred persons, old men, women, and children, were shot dead on the spot.
De Cosmac, the bishop, was very active in the midst of these massacres. When he went out to convert the people, he first began by sending out Saint-Ruth with the dragoons. Afterwards he himself followed to give instructions for their “conversion,” partly through favours, partly by money.
The Project Gutenberg e-Book of The Huguenots in France; Author: Samuel Smiles.
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